A Human cannot live without social, we always need people to communicate with each other, therefore, we have language as the tools for interactions. Kentjono (1982) said that ‘Language is a system of a sound symbol which arbitrary, used by a social group to work together, communicate, and identify their self’. While Cambridge dictionary state that language is a system of communication consisting of sounds, words, and grammar, or the system of communication used by people in a particular country or type of work
In linguistics, there are two languages, primary and secondary language. Primary language is spoken language produced by human vocal organs. While the secondary language is written language; this language is the recording of spoken language. Language is sound (spoken) means in delivering ideas through language, human always produces sound by their vocal organ (Ramelan 1992).
A Language built by many aspects, those are morphology and syntax. The syntax consists of a word, phrase, clause, sentence, and text unit. Those terms usually appear as the point for contrastive analysis, this analysis often used in foreign language learning. The idea of contrastive analysis is to compare two different languages in purpose to find the similarities and the differences between both languages. This method used as a teacher initiative to fix the problem in learning the target language so it means by conducting contrastive analysis will help the learners master their second language.
Statement of the Problem
What are the similarities and differences between English and Indonesian prepositions?
Objective of the Study
- To identify the similarities between English preposition and Indonesian preposition
- To identify the differences between English and Indonesian prepositions
According to Richards, et al., (2002), contrastive analysis is the comparison of two different languages, for example, the study compared the grammatical structure between French and English or the phonological element of both languages. Moreover, Kridalaksana (2008) said that contrastive analysis is such an analysis that was conducted to find out the differences and the similarities of sound into different languages (p.135), so it’s clear that contrastive analysis is used to compare two languages in certain aspects of language. Furthermore, James (in Anggraini, 2012) states that contrastive analysis was firstly suggested by Whorf as contrastive linguistics, a comparative study which emphasizes on linguistics differences. James (in Anggraini, 2012) also states that contrastive analysis is concerned with how native language affects foreign language learning in the individual (p. 8). Thus The point is the outcome of contrastive analysis affects the process of foreign language learning.
In brief, a contrastive analysis which working on analyzing two languages in terms of the source language and the target language, it focuses on finding the differences and the similarities of the languages in question in terms of particular features of the language, such as phonology, morphology, lexicology, syntax, and text analysis. It helps the teacher to find the difficulties in learning the second language so that they can fix or reduce the problems later in teaching foreign languages. In the syntax aspect, the interference of the first language with the second language takes place especially in the use of prepositions.
According to Meriam Webster, Preposition is a function word that typically combines with a noun phrase to form a phrase that usually expresses a modification or predication. It usually consists of word or group of words, such as in, from, to, out of, and on behalf of, used before a noun or pronoun to show place, position, time, or method (Hornby, 2006:1144). A preposition is a word used with a noun, pronoun, or-ing form to show its connection with another word (Longman,1987:813). This means it supports another English form so that prepositions cannot stand alone or independence. They combined with other elements like nouns, (at night), adverbs (forever), or even verbs (to understand). Here are the examples:
- Before today = sebelum hari ini
- After today = setelah hari ini
- Behind the couch = dibelakang sofa
- Without soda = tanpa soda
- With my friend = dengan temanku
- Outside the house = di luar rumah
- Inside the house == didalam rumah
The following is the equivalent of the preposition word in Indonesian:
- Before = sebelum
- After = setelah
- Behind = dibelakang
- Without = tanpa
- With = dengan
- Outside = di luar
- Inside = didalam
There is one previous research study compare English and Indonesian preposition but they focus on the preposition “in”, “on” and “at” compared to the preposition “di” as Indonesian prepositions. It lifts the title “ a comparative function and position of English and Indonesian preposition (comparative linguistic) by Lilik Damayanti and Ramli. This study argues about the Indonesian preposition “di” relates to English prepositions “in”, “on”, and “at” regarding the function and the position of the preposition itself. At the end of the study, they found that the preposition from those languages can be categorized as a temporal and locative prepositions. In terms of position, the preposition “in” and “di” can occur twice or more in a sentence. Moreover, each preposition can occur in the beginning in the middle even at the end of the sentence.
This study used qualitative research because it typically starts with the use of a document review to gather data. It compares the differences between English and Indonesian prepositions. The data collected from sentences of Grammar books have been translated into both languages. The references of this study are taken from books, articles, journals, another thesis (which correlates with this study), and e-Books (electronic book) which might be accessed through the web (international network). References are useful to resolve that problem and to counterpoint the content of this study.
Findings and Discussion
The definition of the preposition is word or group of words, such as in, from, to, out, of, and on behalf of, used before a noun or pronoun to describe a place or position. There are many prepositions to describe a place, such as:
- To show the location: on (di atas), in (di dalam), at (pada).
- The upper than the location: over (di atas), above (di atas)
- The less than the location: under (di bawah), underneath (di bawah),beneath(di bawah), below (di bawah).
- Nearby the location: near (di samping), next to (di samping), alongside (di samping), beside (di sebelah), between (di antara), opposite (di depan).
Those prepositions could be used in such situations:
- On, for something that’s on a surface, to say the name of the street
- In, for something that surrounds or encloses us also for geographical area
- At, for something at the selected point, often as a part of a line or to complete address
- Over, for the higher position than the location or subject.
- Under, to show less than the point.
- Underneath, to express the concept of close under
- Beneath, to express the concept of directly under, with some space between.
- Below: to be directly less than the location or subject.
- Near, for neighboring
- Next, to show something without a barrier between 2 subject
- Alongside, for adjoining persons or things considered as line up, or side by side.
- Beside, in on one side of person or thing that has two sides.
- Between, to describe one person surrounds with 2 people
- Opposite, to directly facing someone or something else
From those theories we can find that there are similarities between English and Indonesian prepositions.
Analysis of similarities prepositions
There are many English prepositions which similar to Indonesian because they describe the place:
- On (di atas), the book is on the table = buku itu ada diatas meja. It used to say the name of the city, country, or places. This preposition in is similar to Indonesian prepositions which is “di” because it’s also describe the place.
- In (di dalam), the cupcake in the refrigerator = cupcake itu ada di dalam kulkas. It shows the similarity between them because they both describe the place
- At (pada), I stand at the door = saya berdiri di depan pintu. This example describe Indonesian and English preposition which describe the place
- Over (di atas), the plane flew over the mountains = pesawat terbang, terbang di atas gunung. It’s also similar because they both describe the position of the plane
- Under (di bawah), the dog is under the table = anjing itu di bawah meja; it describe where the dog stay
- Underneath (di bawah), the pen is underneath the box = pulpen di bawah kotak. It shows the pen position
- Beneath (di bawah), beneath a tree lay a dog fast as sleep = seekor anjing tidur berbaring di bawah pohon. It points where the dog sleep
- Below (di bawah), the vas is below the window = vas bunga ada di bawah jendela. This preposition shows the place of the vas. Indonesian preposition “di” bawah to point the place that under some extent so they both similar.
- Beside (di samping), he sat beside his wife during the party = dia duduk di samping istrinya selama di pesta. It’s similar with Indonesian preposition for the term “di antara” to describe the place on side of someone or thing that has two sides. Pretty clear both are similar
- Between (di antara), he sat between his two sons = dia duduk di antara kedua anak laki-lakinya. It’s similar with Indonesian preposition for the term “di antara” to describe the place on side of someone or thing that has two sides.
Analysis of Differences Prepositions
- On (di atas), the paper is on the desk = kertas itu di atas meja tulis. The different is Indonesian preposition usually use only “di”
- In (di dalam), hang your coat within the badroom = kantung jaketmu di dalam kamar tidur. Indonesian preposition for the place use only “di”
- At (pada), I stand at the door = saya berdiri di depan pintu. Indonesian preposition use “di”
- Over (di atas), the plane flew over the mountains = pesawat terbang terbang di atas gunung. The utilization of English preposition and Indonesia is different “over” and “diatas”
- Above (di atas), the picture is above the sofa = gambar itu di atas dipan. The utilization of English preposition meaning place above is different
- Under (di bawah) The dog is under the table = Anjing itu di bawah meja. The utilization of English preposition “under is different from the Indonesian preposition “di bawah” to point the place that below some extent
- Underneath (di bawah) The pen is underneath the box = Pulpen di bawah kotak. The utilization of English preposition “underneath” is different from the Indonesian preposition “di bawah” to point the place that below some extent
- Beneath (di bawah) Beneath a tree lay a dog fast assleep = anjing tidur berbaring di bawah pohon. The utilization of English preposition “beneath” is different from the Indonesian preposition “di bawah” to point the place that below some extent.
- Below (di bawah) The desk is below the window = meja tulis di bawah jendela. The utilization of English preposition “below” is different from the Indonesian preposition “di bawah” to point the place that less than a degree.
- Between (di antara) He sat between his two sons means Dia duduk di antara kedua anak laki-lakinya. The utilization of English prepositional meaning place between is different from Indonesian prepositional for place “di antara” to point the place on side of an individual or thing that has two sides.
There are also preposition that we cannot say it different or similar
- Near (di samping), he lives near the university means dia tinggal di samping universitas. This preposition is not similar with Indonesian preposition which show “near” as “disamping” but we cannot call it different too because in Indonesian preposition which describe place is not any used for general meaning of neighboring. So in English preposition “near” have neither similarities nor differences with Indonesian prepositions
- Next to (di samping), Jane is standing next to the car means Jane berdiri di samping mobil. This prepositions next is not similar to Indonesian preposition because in Indonesian preposition for the place is not used with nothing else between them. in brief, there is no similarities and differencies between them.
- Alongside (di samping), the tug pulled up alongside the tanker means sentakan mencabut di samping sisi kapal tangki. There’s no similarities and differences because in Indonesian preposition for place is not used for adjoining persons or things considered as line up, or side by side.
- Opposite (di seberang), the museum is simply opposite the post office means Museum hanya di seberang kantor pos. This preposition neither similar nor different to Indonesian preposition because in the preposition for place is not used for directly facing someone or something else.
There are some conclusions which may be stated that both English and Indonesian prepositions have similarities and difficulties. There are four similarities and differences between English and Indonesian preposition of place. Besides, English has many varieties of preposition of place like on, in, and at (the point itself), over and above (higher than a point), under, underneath, beneath, and below (lower than a point), near, next to, alongside, beside, between, and among (neighboring the point).
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