Discourse analysis is an exploration strategy for considering composed or communicated in the language in connection to its social setting. In other words, it is to search beyond what the sentences and words say. Under the title of discourse analysis, we have conversation analysis which is a particular type of examination or enquiry. Also, under the title of conversation title we have adjacency pairs which requires a person to direct a question and a person who responds to the question. In this paper the adjacency pairs are a doctor and a patient. The research is done by the primary data which included observation, interviewing, taking notes and taking records. by the researcher. Because of the privacy of the patient and the probability of ailing of the patient, the observation was brief and concise. The conversation analysis showed that the conversation between and a doctor and a patient is a formulaic response which includes initiation-respond-feedback. Another different point was that the conversation between a doctor and a familiar patient was lengthier compared to an unfamiliar patient.
The results illustrated that a conversation between a doctor and a patient is distant and is with due to regard.
Researcher: Şeyma Anlar
As it is shown in the paper, our title for this research paper is, A Conversation Analysis Between A Doctor and A Patient. Within this topic, we will learn about discourse analysis and the subtitles, the methodology and the materials used, the results which we have found, and the it will finish with a discussions about the title. Aim of this paper is to analyze a conversation between a doctor and a patient in Turkey to see the relationship between them and also to question a small part of the circumstances of health care in Turkey. The research may be important according to the health care of Turkey.
To start with, discourse analysis is an exploration strategy for considering composed or communicated in language in connection to its social setting. It plans to see how language is utilized, in actuality, circumstances. At the point when you do talk investigation, you may concentrate on: the reasons and impacts of various kinds of language, social standards and shows in correspondence, how esteems, convictions and suppositions are imparted, how language use identifies with its social, political and verifiable setting, discourse analysis is a typical subjective research strategy in numerous humanities and sociology disciplines, including etymology, humanism, humanities, brain science and social examinations. Directing discourse analysis implies analyzing how language capacities and how important is made in various social settings. It very well may be applied to any occasion of composed or oral language, just as non-verbal parts of correspondence, for example, tone and motions. Not at all like semantic methodologies that emphasis just on the guidelines of language use, discourse analysis underlines the relevant importance of language. It centers around the social parts of correspondence and the manners in which individuals use language to accomplish explicit impacts (for example to construct trust, to make question, to inspire feelings, or to oversee struggle). Rather than concentrating on littler units of language, for example, sounds, words, or expressions, discourse analysis is utilized to ponder bigger pieces of language, for example, whole discussions, writings, or assortments of writings. Under the title of discourse analysis, we will be examining conversation analysis.
Secondly, conversation Analysis is a specific form of investigation or enquiry. A conversation refers two or more individuals talking with one another just for the sake of talking. It is a form of sociability and reflects an individual’s ability and willingness to interact with others. At a basic level, conversation analysis is viewed as the study of talk. In a broad sense, conversation analysis could refer to the study of people talking together, oral communication or even study of language use.
One particularly important principle used in CA is the adjacency pair. Utterance types of certain kinds are found to co-occur: a greeting leads to a return of greeting; a summons leads to a response; a question leads to an answer; a request or offer leads to an acceptance or refusal; a complaint leads to an apology or some kind of rejection; a statement leads to some kind of confirmation or recognition; a compliment leads to acceptance or rejection; a farewell leads to a farewell; and so on.
Materials And Methods
This research paper is a basic research that aims to develop knowledge, theories, and predictions. The data used in the research is the primary data which is collected directly by the researcher. Lastly, the method in types of sampling, timescale and location is probability sampling which allows you to generalize your findings to a broader population. Also, the method used in this essay is qualitative method which aims to produce contextual real-world knowledge about the behaviors, social structures, and shared beliefs of a specific group of people.
The major part of the study was interviewing, investigating, and observing. The other method was question-answer. While using these methods I used note taking and recording by cell-phone. After taking notes I read and critically analyze them.
The survey with the patient and the doctor was constructed was in 3rd of January 2020 in a private physical therapy and rehabilitation center in Ankara. Because of the Hippocratic oath and the privacy of the patient, I was not able to listen all the conversation between the patient and the doctor but the essential parts for this paper was the openings. That’s why the interview and observation took approximately 1 or 2 minutes; with to participants the time was approximately 5 minutes.
The participants were chosen by the patients of my father, who is a neurologist and there were only 2 participant whom I observed. The reason why I chose these methods was that they were much easier for me to have access to and the second reason is that the information which I can gather was a doctor who is in my family and his patient.
The beginning of a conversation, or opening, will generally involve an exchange of greetings. In the conversation between a doctor and a patient is generally similar to a teacher and a student’s conversation. The doctor requires an initiation and the patient responds and the doctor gives feedbacks.
The conversation I have observed was thus;
The patient knocks the door and enters in the room:
- -Doctor: hi, welcome. How are you?
- -Patient: thank you ‘hocam’, how are you?
- -Doctor: thank you, get well soon. Please have a sit and tell me your complaints.
- -Patient: thank you. ‘Hocam’ I have extreme headaches and sometimes my hands get numb.
- -Doctor: have you lifted something heavy with your hands before?
The observation I have got from the doctor that he was smiling and when I asked the reason he responded to me that he must earn the patient’s trust so that s/he could tell his/her problems s/he faces. As we see the conversation between a doctor and a patient was a formulaic response which is fixed conversation between 2 or more people.
Moreover, as we have stated this observation was set in the capital of Turkey, Ankara, and the word ‘hocam’ is used commonly in this city and it refers to respectability to other people especially to the professors.
But one exception to this situation is when a patient who is familiar to the doctor, the conversation draws up additionally;
The familiar patient knocks the door and enters in doctor’s room and they hug each other, shake hands and slowly hitting the heads together (a common greeting in Turkey especially seen between men.)
- -Doctor: hi, welcome how are? Where have you been my old friend, we haven’t seen each other for a long time…
- -Patient: thanks thanks ‘hocam’, as you know we are too busy at work. I came here to you to have a check-up for my health condition.
- -Doctor: get well soon please have a sit and tell me if you have any problems you are facing with your health.
- -Patient: hi, ‘hocam’ this is your small daughter isn’t it? (pointing me)
- -Doctor: yes yes.
- -Patient: she is grown up since we haven’t seen each other, mashAllah.
- (me smiling at the corner and shake my head as response while taking notes and a record)
- -Doctor: yes, dear friend, what about your health issues…
The research showed that not all, but probably most of the doctors in health care in Turkey that, the relations and the conversations between a doctor and a patient is distant and is with due regard. But of course, we cannot generalize this situation to all the relations between a doctor and a patient because this was very brief research on conversation analysis.
In recent years although the relation between a doctor and patient was with a distant, the Turkish doctors say that hospital violence is out of control. To compare this situation to the relation between a teacher and a student, again the results are not satisfying. Probably because of the respect rate of the new generation is not well.