Acid Rain: Causes, Effects and Control
During normal rain pollutants are cleane . If rain fall continues rainwater clean the air from pollutants. Sulphat , ammonium and nitrate can be reduced by normal rain up to 30 to 73%. While the gases i.e. sulphur dioxide, Ammonia, Chlorine and NO2 can be decreased by 24 to 63%. The amount of NO2 in 72% areas of Lahore city is higher than standard values set by Pakistan and US EPA. These results are the indication of bad air quality in city.
To control acid rain there is a need to reduce amount of sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen released into the atmosphere by using less energy and clean fuels (natural gas), by using catalytic converters and by flue gas desulphurization. Also acid rain can be reduced by fuel switching or scrubbing. Fuel switching is to limit the use of sources containing sulphur. Coal are switched to coal which emit less sulphur and in place of oil use gas or any other energy source such as gas boilers instead of oil boilers. Scrubbing is the use of electrostatic precipitators in which positively charged sulphur particles are attracted by negatively charged particles. To reduce NOx methods such as Selective Catalytic Reduction Process (SCR) are used. This method reduce NOx up To 80% . In automobiles NOx can be reduced by using Catalytic Converters. These catalyst reduce NOx by 3 ways of conversion of NOx:
Many forests ,streams and lakes are not effected by acid rain because of soil of that area. In those areas soil an buffers the acid rain by neutralizing acidity of rain water in it. This capacity of soil depends on soil composition and thickness and also on bedrock under soil. In areas like mountainous parts of North East United States, the soil thickness is less and lack ability to neutralize the acid rain water. Hence these areas are vulnerable to harmful effects of acid rain.
Melting of snow and heavy rain can result in episodic acidification. Lakes that do not normally have a increased level of acidity may experience some effects of acid rain for a short period of time. In this short period of time acidity of lake remain high and soil can’t buffet it. This short duration of higher acidity (lower pH) can result in a stress of ecosystem for short time. In this short time some species of plants and animals may be injured or even die.
Acid rain has many disaster effects in all over the world. Acid rain damage buildings and decrease their beauty of attraction acid rain also effects plants and trees and forests directly or indirectly. Acid rain damage chlorophyll in plants due to which their photosynthesis process in effected and plant die. Acid rain in human cause asthma, cough, eyes infection, nose irritation etc. Due to Acid rain pH of water bodies increased above average level and result in death of fish and other aquatic animals and plants. Acid rain can be controlled by different programs and awareness among people about it causes. We can control acid rain by using clean fuel in automobiles and industries built outside of cities and their waste should be disposed for prevention from its effects.
Acid rain, or acid deposition is rain water with elevated levels of hydrogen (H+) ions. Acid rain refers to the ways in which acid moves from the atmosphere to the earth’s surface. It is transboundary and involves the falling of sulfuric or nitric acid. There are two different forms of acid deposition, one of them is wet deposition: acid rain, snow, and fog and dry deposition, which falls as separate acidic particles or gases. Acid rain occurs as a result...
Authors Lauraine Chestnut and David Mills documented the benefits and cost assessment of the US acid rain reduction platform. Special attention was given to the parameters specified under the US Acid Rain Program, specifically Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. To accomplish that goal, the proponents of the study compared estimates made in 1990 to estimates made a decade after. Furthermore, the need to measure the benefits of the program in the context of human health was...
Rain is a critical component in the process of the hydrological cycle. The water cycle is beneficial to all organism living on this planet. It brings purification and distribution of fresh water that can be used by all living organism. Apart from providing fresh water, it also played a pivotal role in regulating the earth temperature. Regulation of the temperature occurs when water in the sea, lake or any other water body evaporates bringing a cooling effect to our environment....
The term “acid rain” was first used by Robert Angus in 1872. “Literally it means the presence of excessive acids in rain waters.” Acid rain is in-fact cocktail of mainly H2SO4 and HNO3, where the ratio of these two may vary depending upon the relative quantities of oxides of sulphur and nitrogen emitted. H2SO4 is the major contributor (60-70%) to acid precipitation, HNO3 ranks second (30-40%) and HCl third. Acid rain is in fact a natural phenomenon occurring during any...
Introduction Pollution entails the introduction of substances into the environment in quantities that can change environmental conditions and in turn, harm organisms. Acid rain and ozone pollution are a form of pollution, which entails the release of gaseous and dust particles in quantities that destroy the integrity of the atmosphere and affect organisms in their respective habitats and ecosystems. Essentially, the atmosphere is an integral natural resource of the earth because it contains and maintains gases in appropriate proportions, which...
Introduction Acid rain is a very serious environmental problem that exists today because of high-energy consumption in the industrial world. Acid rain is snow, fog, or rain that has been polluted by acid in the atmosphere. Rain is naturally acidic because carbon dioxide, found normally in the earth’s atmosphere, reacts with water to form carbonic acid. While “pure” rain’s acidity is pH 5.6-5.7, actual pH readings vary from place to place depending upon the type and amount of other gases...
This paper focuses on one of the main pollution related problems that affect the modern day world. The problem under study is acid rain. This form of rainfall is yet another of mankind’s caused problems since it results from production of nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide and sulfur oxide gases in large amount due to activities such as deforestation and burning fossils to produce electricity. The implications of this form of rainfall on various ecosystems are discussed in this paper with...
Acid rain is the environmental issue that can occurs negative impact towards human, animals, surrounding or even non-living things like property. The clean rain has a pH value between 5.0 and 5.5. Nevertheless, the pH of rain can become more acidic up to 4.0 if the rain combines with sulfur dioxides or nitrogen dioxides which those are from the industrial area. Some parties in industry are not taking serious on how they manage their company, thus the air and water...
Introduction Acid rain refers to rain containing strong inorganic acids in solution. The acids include sulfuric acid, ammonium and nitric acid. The acids originate from acid forming substances emitted into the atmosphere from combustion of hydrocarbon fuels and farming activities (Driscoll et al. 2005, p. 27). These chemicals interact with ozone and atmospheric moisture to form the acids which are incorporated into rain droplets and transferred to the earth’s surface. This report explains the processes leading to acidic atmospheric deposition....
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