The purpose of this action research was to help the students to identify professions appropriate with their abilities, interests, and personality traits and to guide the students to technical and vocational training, especially at the primary and secondary levels with their own will. An action research strategy in which qualitative methods and quantitative methods were used was selected for this study. As a result of this action research, there was a promising difference in terms of the proportional change between the number of students who finished from high school in the sample and attended to Mettu polytechnic college last year and the number of students in the sample who has finished from high school and then who will attend to Mettu poly technic college this year. The findings of this research have important implications about how vocational and technical education can be updated, improved, increased the quality and attractiveness, well-organized according to market needs and thus more preferred in Ethiopia based on the perceptions and preferences of the students who preferred or did not prefer TVET.
Key Words: Mettu polytechnic college, students, action study.
Background of the Study
All over the world, Technical and vocational training is recognized as an instrument for economic and social development.
The Ethiopian education system consists of 12 years of compulsory education (8-year primary, 2-year high school, 2-year preparatory and higher education respectively. In Ethiopia, there are main types of high schools & colleges: 9-10 high schools, preparatory high schools & TVET schools. Admission to preparatory high schools is competitive by the government examination, and applicants must have good grades following their compulsory education. Preparatory high schools are the most prestigious in Ethiopia. Students attend for 2 years and study a broad science curriculum and foreign languages. Preparatory general high schools also select by the government entrance exam /matric /and applicants must have completed their ten-year education without repeating any year. TVET less prestigious they are than preparatory High Schools, TVET College covers a similar 3/4-year program. TVET are schools aiming at training and educating students for employment. TVET College is the least prestigious of these and the easiest to enter in terms of the less scores obtained at the high school entrance exam. Any students who have finished high school and have not been admitted to other prestigious schools but have a right to attend TVET according to their scores from the high school entrance exam. This school is TVET College. TVET graduates have several disadvantages relative to general secondary education students. Firstly, because of their concentrated TVET, they tend to be less prepared for the academically-oriented university entrance exam. Secondly, the university entrance formula, which gives greater weight to students’ performance when applying to study in a related field, reduces the likelihood that TVET graduates could enter into a four-year university program because, by definition, none is directly related to a TVET field. And thirdly, while TVET graduates are provided with direct access to tertiary education (without consideration of their scores at the university entrance exam), their choice of discipline is limited to the specific field they studied in their TVET. The basic problem for TVET for Mettu TVET is the student. Thus, there are not so many students who attend TVET College through choice or who have been selected on some definite criteria. The reasons for selection of this Mettu TVET in order of importance are: because of getting inadequate scores to go to Preparatory high school; economic inadequacy of the family; guidance of the family and acquaintances; desire to join economic life and guidance performed under some definite criteria by both the primary and high school and the family.
When the student distributions in preparatory schools and TVET in Ethiopia were examined, in the past year majority was in preparatory secondary studies in general in Ethiopia with a percentage of more in general and less percent in TVET. On the other hand, in Ethiopia the latest unemployment data shows that there is a serious problem in youth unemployment. The high unemployment rate of educated young people should be considered as a serious and dangerous sign in terms of the country’s future prosperity. Despite the importance given to TVET education and the rapidly increasing number of those colleges, the demand for general high secondary school education is still ongoing. A limited quota of higher education causes those preparatory secondary graduates flow to the labor market without any professional background, facing with a serious unemployment problem. The definition of educated youth is a person who has graduated from secondary school and higher education institutions. The majority of unemployed people are those of high secondary finish.
The aim of this action research was to help the students to identify professions appropriate with their abilities, talents, interests and personality traits and to guide the students to technical and vocational training, especially at the primary and high school level with their own will.
1.1. Problem Identification
It is also worth to note that students who failed to proceed to secondary school do not have vocational skills.
The major problems of the students unable to select technical vocational and training Mettu PTC are: – there is no computations (no grading system, only C&NO C), negative understanding about technics, Compound is not attractive for students to stay as well as for teacher, administration worker and other, there is a skilled teacher in our college but no working together also and no respect each other , there is no different club like Sport, Technology, HIV, etc., teacher and management worker lack of respect for their job. So to over these all face problems teaching society to convert their negative understanding on TVET and the important of TVET and the big role over the world, becharm the compound more attraction to stay, working together and respect for our job.
- Do questions arise as to why the student/learners are not first choosing TVET over the preparatory high school?
- To Reflect on the key concepts and consideration of the theme, including the Pressures to make Mettu PTC more attractive for students to choose.
- To help the students to identify professions appropriate to their abilities, talents, interests, and personality traits.
- To improve the public perceptions of Mettu PTC Colleges to make students’ first choice.
I completed the first cycle of the action research in the following way:-
Focus on Making Mettu poly technic Collage more attractive for student to prefer Why
- To Reflect on the key concepts and considerations of the theme, including the Pressures to make Mettu PTC more attractive for students to choose.
- To help the students to identify professions appropriate to their abilities, talents, interests, and personality traits.
- To improve the public perceptions of Mettu PTC to make students’ first choice.
- 1. Preparation of plan
By Preparing Proposal Instructor Belachew Eshetu January 13/2020
- 2. Implementation of the action plan attracting MPTC for students to prefer MPTC teachers and students February 5/2020
- 3. Data collection
- Face to face
- Previous documents
- Instructor Belachew Eshetu and students of MPTC January22-Feb3
- 4. Report writing Writing report Instructor Belachew Eshetu March 1/2020
After submitting this action plan I started to apply the following steps:-
- The formal permission procedures from MPTC for the research were fulfilled.
- The target student population and sample were determined by students in MPTC.
- The numbers of students who preferred vocational and technical education were checked and their numbers were determined.
- Individual and focus interviews with the selected 10 sample of students in their TVET in MPTC.
- Vocational and technical teachers from technical and vocational education made presentations of those promising technical and vocational programs with the highest employment potential.
- The students and teachers from those promising technical and vocational programs in TVET education introduced their own programs.
- TVET visits for observing the practical operation of those technical and vocational programs were organized.
- Individual and focus group interviews with the selected 5 samples of students in their TVET in MPTC were done again in order to understand whether there was a change in students’ attitudes to MPTC.
- The preference rates of the students from the sample school for technical and Mettu PTC were compared with the previous year to reveal the realization level of this action research.
An action research strategy in which qualitative methods and quantitative methods were used was selected for this study. “Action research simultaneously assists in problem-solving and expands scientific knowledge, as well as enhancing the competencies of the respective actors, being performed collaboratively in an immediate situation using data feedback in a cyclical process, aimed at an increased understanding of a given social situation, primarily applicable for the understanding of change processes in social systems and undertaken within a mutually acceptable framework.” (Hult & Lennung, 1980, p. 241-250). Thus, the advantages of action research can be summarized such as direct links between research and problem solving, Possible personal benefits for practitioner/professional self-development, a continuous cycle of change and development – organizational benefits, practitioner participation, an accumulation of action research may lead to policy and practice changes.
In this Action research, the following Method are adopted to achieve the objectives the cycle process shown in the following Fig 1. which have used in my Action research.
In order to investigate participants’ perceptions on TVET and how to make Mettu poly technic Collage more attractive for the student to prefer, semi-structured interviews and focus group interviews were used because it would provide an in-depth exploration of the topic, it would allow the researchers flexibility, for example, to change the order of questions, simplify the questions and to probe the interviews (Cohen, et al. 2007). Data were collected from January2020-Feb2020. This included 20-40 minute recorded interviews with the informants- face-to-face interviews and focus group interviews- with initial interview questions. Face-to-face interviews were done and informants’ experiences, thoughts and feelings were recorded in a taped diary. Additionally, the target student population and sample were determined in schools- 10th-grade students in Mettu high school, the numbers of students who finished from the selected high school last year in the 2018-2019 academic year and preferred vocational and technical education were checked and their numbers were determined from school statistics. Thus, the preference and enrolment rates of those students who finished last year and who would finish this year from the sample school for technical and vocational college upper secondary education were compared with the last year to reveal the realization level of this action research.
Data analysis began with repeated readings of interview transcripts from conversations with participants. The purpose was to determine the essence of the phenomenon and structures of experiences of participants related to TVET and how to Make Mettu poly technic Collage more attractive for students to prefer. During data analysis, the data were organized categorically, reviewed repeatedly and continually coded. Interview transcripts were regularly reviewed.
The findings of the action study were analyzed under main sub-headings: the view of the students who finished from high school last year and preferred vocational and technical education on TVET high schools, parents and students’ views on Vocational and Technical Education prior to introductory presentations on TVET high schools and school visits, presentations and school visits, the students` views on Vocational and Technical Education after presentations and school visits and the comparison of the enrolment rates of the students from the sample school to technical and vocational than secondary school education with the students who finished from the high school last year.
The total number of students attending 2010 and 2011(old students) is Male 645, Female 326 and in 2012 year Male 390, Female 60 in Metu polytechnic collage this indicates that the number of students is decreasing year to year so the interest decrease of students who prefer the TVET which means our collage is not attracted student to prefer. we going automatically take action.
The number of students very decrease year to year as you see the above percent fig 2 students attend in 2010 and 2011 year totally 971, Male 645(44%), Female 345(20%) and the number of students in 2012 (in this year) totally 450, Male 390(25%), Female60 (11%) this means half students decrease and a number of female students very decrease so the student not attracted by Mettu polytechnic college.
The number of old students in 2010 and 2011 year and new students in 2012 year choose TVET and attending in Mettu polytechnic college female(old) male(old) female(new) male(new)
I started from the student interview, question and answer with selected sample students and to solve faced problems which list above I take the following action.
Mettu ploy technic college more attract for the student to prefer.
- Develop teaching and learning system English language and teaching by our own Oromic language.
- Preparing different skill computations between students for the winner by giving awards.
- Preparing the MPTC compound suitable for students to stay.
- By increasing of the Female participation
- We follow the grading system that is an option for students come to computation between them.
- Announcing to the society about MPTC important students to join.
- Teaching the student about TVET in a lower grade in primary and secondary schools to avoid negative thinking on TVET.
Next 2013 year the students choose the Mettu ploy technic college 100% than others like preparatory, and other private colleges and year to year increase the interest of students to join TVET.
They encourage of the students to join MPTC, and avoid negative thinking on TVET, increasing their interest choose MPTC. I put the percentage of students in case of very attracted by MPTC next 2013 year the students choose the Mettu ploy technic college 100% than others like preparatory, other private college and year to year increased interest of students to join TVET.
Us we see the fig 2 the number of students who choose the MPTC is increasing Male 54%and Female 46% double the past year by applying an action plan.
- Female 46%
- Male 54%
The number of students chooses the MPTC
TVET in Mettu were perceived both by students and their parents as the college the aim of which is to train and to educate students according to the vocational programs they choose based on their talents, abilities, and interests, help them to find a job easily in the labor market after graduation by acquiring the qualifications of the professions they preferred or as the college which offers a chance to run their own enterprise. However, TVET are not perceived as prestigious when compared to high schools as students attending to TVET the aim of which to train and educate students as intermediate manpower for the labor market are not as luckier as those attending high schools the aim of which to prepare students for academic higher education in attending tertiary education