Now a day, we are facing a problem regarding the management of waste generated daily. This waste includes solid waste from commercial zone, industrial zone and residential zone. Among all these waste management from residential zone requires first priority because if this waste is not properly disposed daily, then it will create problems to public health, affects the aesthetics. This paper gives the present status of solid waste management on dumping ground in Mumbai region and also suggests some methods to control the same. Urgent steps in this direction will reduce the water, air, soil pollution and health hazards.
Solid waste management is considered to be one of the most serious environmental problems confronting developing countries. The collection, transport, recovery, and disposal of waste, including the supervision of such operations and after-care of disposal sites is referred as Waste Management. It concerns itself with the existing amount of waste, trying to minimize the human-waste or environment – waste interface and to minimize potential impact. Waste management should concern itself not only with final disposal of waste but also with the whole cycle of waste creation, transport, storage, treatment, and recovery and does so to minimize pollution. According to the waste management pyramid, the waste management strategies need to be based on prevention measures and measures such as recovery and disposal are secondary. Waste prevention, internal recycling of production waste, and source – oriented improvement of waste quality and reuse of products for the same purpose, all this is included in waste minimization measures. External recycling, sorting of waste, reuse for another purpose, and energy recovery are included as waste management measures. Waste management is also viewed as the control of waste-related activities with the aim of protecting human health and the environment and resources conservation. Waste – creating processes, waste handling processes, and waste utilization are all waste related activities.
Centralized disposal numerous bodies achieve the decentralized gathering system by group canisters. In any case, there is adding up to carelessness about the transfer through decentralized units. Transfer is still done in unified framework. This is basic situation in metro urban communities. Like in Mumbai, by and by there are three dumping grounds Deonar, Mulund and Gorai. Deonar is the biggest and the most seasoned dumping ground of Mumbai working since 1924. Mulund dumping ground is working since 1969 while Gorai is one of the littlest dumpsite of Mumbai Operating since 1974. The fundamental imperative for setting up of waste handling office for nearby bodies is non-accessibility of reasonable land and the successful execution of MSW Rules. Sites ought to be situated at where there is, more often than not, no human populace or at a protected separation from all human settlement, in a perfect world dumping. To settle close to the dumping grounds, the expansion in the number of inhabitants in the city has constrained individuals. This prompts issues like individuals living in unfortunate conditions and challenging.
For the conclusion of the dumping grounds, as dumping causes well-being dangers for the general population in the vicinity. Increasing populace creates vast measure of waste, which requires the huge fix of land for its appropriate transfer. Be that as it may, with expanding urbanization, arrive accessible for dumping and making of landfill destinations for transfer of waste is getting to be noticeably troublesome particularly for metro cities. For case there are just 4 landfill locales in the Mumbai
Problems with existing system
A dumping ground is, generally, a low-lying, and marshy area, which is located on the outskirts of a city, where there is, usually, no human population. We have, in our city, three dumping grounds which are located in the northern part of Mumbai at Gorai (Borivali), Mulund and Deonar. A fourth one at Chincholi has recently closed down. Among the three, Deonar is the largest dumping ground. All the dumping grounds are nearly 30-40km away which explains the huge costs on transportation. The increase in the population of the city has forced people to settle near the dumping grounds. This has led to the twin problems of people living in unhealthy conditions and protesting for the closure of the dumping grounds, as dumping causes health hazards for the people in the vicinity.
Garbage Collection – Low Serviced Areas
The garbage collection activity itself has several differences among the localities; there are highly-serviced areas, medium-serviced areas and very low-serviced areas. The low-serviced areas which are the slums; slums are not seen as the rightful recipients of the formal systems of solid waste management (SWM). The local government extends its services only to regularized slums which are declared official or recognized under the census of slums. This step motherly treatment is, in effect, the cities own undoing, since slums form 60% of Mumbai.
Advanced Locality Management
Advanced Locality Management (ALM) is local management of solid waste by citizens who organised themselves to manage their waste. At household level, wet waste is segregated and composted locally in any available area, planters, etc., and sweepers or rag pickers take dry waste away. There are in all 657 ALMs along with 288 vermi – compost pits spread over six zones of the MCGM’s jurisdiction. This way, approximately 2056 tonnes of garbage per day is prevented from reaching the dump yards. Women run 90% of these ALMs is an encouraging fact. The MCGM has also established vermi – compost projects on its own, one each in the eastern and western suburbs, respectively, to demonstrate to the citizens, the benefits of vermi-culture technology. The success of any ALM depends entirely upon people’s participation. Organisation of the community, training and initiation is done jointly by residents and MCGM, and is initially funded by residents and the Corporation. At later stages, the activities are completely funded by the residents.
Construction-related products like bricks, interlocking pavers are made from recycled debris. City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) and YUVA, an NGO, have collaborated on this effort to convert the debris and reduce the load on dumping grounds. Presently, three tonnes of debris per day is converted by the plant in Navi Mumbai. In the whole of India, this plant is one of its kind and has been successful in developing products conforming to Indian Standard Codes of practice of the Central Government in the year 2000. 1500 tonnes of debris has been recycled by the plant till date. The rag pickers play an important role in managing the solid waste; they retrieve all possible recyclable items from waste and, thus, put these materials back to proper reuse. But, sadly the rag pickers are never recognized for the invaluable service they provide to the city’s solid waste management.
Role of the Citizens
The training of the 3 ‘R’s should be given to the citizens with respect to waste management.
As much as 26% is spent only on transportation of waste is indicated in the budget of the Municipal Corporation. Cutting down on transportation can urgently reduce the waste. Waste generation reduction can lead to reduction in waste reduction if the citizens take a proper steps towards it.
Simple habits like carrying a cloth bag while going shopping will be helpful to reduce the need for plastic bags. Please do not buy any products in a polythene bag and help the environment as a whole.
To recycle, we should segregate our garbage at source. Wet garbage can be recycled by composting or vermi-composting in your backyard or in the vicinity. This will produce good manure that can be used for gardens and lawns. The dry garbage can be given to the rag pickers who sell it to re-users to earn some money.
Conclusion and Future Work
In this paper we presented the design and implementation of recommending friends on social network with artificial intelligence approach. It’s totally different from the friend recommendation mechanisms relying on social graphs in existing social networking services,
This system extracted life styles which generally includes profile post and comments of user and recommended potential friends to users if they share similar life styles. We implemented recommendation system and evaluated its performance on both small-scale experiments and large-scale simulations. The results showed that the recommendations accurately reflect the preferences of users in choosing friends.
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