2001 year. How the war started.
The war had started during years when the Taliban was controlling Afghanistan. In the evening of 7 October 2001, the military operation, performed by the USA and the UK, began. Around 40 combat aircraft and 50 missiles were activated. During the first month, the fighting was reduced to strikes by US aircraft on military targets of the Taliban. Anti-aircraft warfare was disabled almost immediately; all aviation they had was destroyed at the airfields. At this time Talibs spread false information of combatant actions, they said that UK and USA were defeated. Their reports have been refuted by the US Central Command.
After US attack The Afghan Northern Alliance, which was officially called “United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan”, launched a military offensive against the Talibs. After a month of bombardment, the Taliban’s mobility was declined: it lost all of its aircraft (the presence of which had previously been a noticeable advantage over the Northern Alliance), and the rear supply lines were broken. On the 9th of November, the Northern Alliance liberated the major city of Mazar-i-Sharif. At the same time, many people of the Taliban were killed and the city was subjected to looting. The loss of Mazar-i-Sharif dealt a serious blow to the Taliban. Many field commanders, who supported him, chose to move to the side of the Northern Alliance after the first defeat.
On the 13th of November Talib without military resistance liberated Kabul, which was under their authority since 1996. A few days later, they controlled only the southern part of Afghan istan and the city of Kunduz in the north. The siege of Kunduz continued from November 16 to 25 and ended with the surrender of the Taliban forces holding the city.
By the end of November Talib had only one big city – Kandahar, the center of the Taliban movement. The leader of the movement Mullah Omar was here. On the 25th of November, the first large US military contingent landed in Afghanistan – about 1,000 marines were deployed from ships in the Arabian Sea to the area south of Kandahar, where they created Camp Rhino, the forward operating base. The next day, a small column of Taliban armored vehicles advanced to the camp, which was destroyed by AH-1W helicopters. Although the marines did not participate in ground combat, the position of the Taliban in besieged Kandahar gradually deteriorated, and the city fell on the 7th of December. Some of the militants managed to escape to neighboring Pakistan, others went to the mountains (including Mullah Omar), the rest surrendered to the Northern Alliance. The capture of Kandahar ended the main stage of the fighting.
When the capture of Kandahar finished, the US military went to Tora Bora side, where Osama bin Laden was hiding. The battle of Tora Bora started from 12 till 17 December. The Afghan Northern Alliance with US and UK attacked the territory of Tora Bora:the main purpose of this attack was a large cave complex. When they won the battle, US started to cave inspection to find Osama bin Laden, but their quest failed because he managed to leave his refugees before the US offensive began. Despite this, the military operation, which continued two and a half months, crowned with success – the Taliban movement was removed from power and lost capability.
When the operation ended, in December the UN hosted the Bonn Conference. The Taliban were not participants `cause the UN didn`t allow them. At this conference they created the Afghan Interim Administration and head of AIA was Hamid Karzai. To help monitor security in the country the UN deployed an ISAF (International Security Assistance Force), which was a military mission of NATO. At first, its zone of responsibility extended only to Kabul and territories environing it.
2002 year. “Anaconda” and Post-Anaconda operations
The first year after the fall of the Taliban regime was quieter in Afghanistan than in 2001. But on January 5 and 19 the Americans suffered small losses. On the 5th of January because of the actions of the enemy the first time an American soldier died. On 19th there was a crash due to engine failure, in a mountainous area in the Kabul region 40 miles south of Bagram airbase, which was destroyed to prevent the falling into the hands of enemy. 2 crew members were killed and 5 injured.
In the same year on March US and international coalition began an operation “Anaconda”, which was one of the most significant and known operations of the global war on terrorism. It was the biggest battle between terrorist organization “Al-Qaida” and US troops, since the beginning of the war in Afghanistan. During spring and summer military of US and ISAF continued operations in the south, but it was easy `cause the enemies didn’t impede. After the combat at Shahi-Ko, “Al-Qaida” created a refuge on the Pakistani border. Partisan detachments which numbered from 5 to 25 people constantly crossed the border to shoot coalition bases, ambush, patrol and organize attacks. The remnants of the Taliban hid in four provinces: Kandahar, Zabul, Helmand and Uruzgan.
2003 – 2005 years. Guerrilla war. Return of the Taliban.
After “Anaconda” the Department of Defense start the operation “Jacana”, which include such kind of missions like Operation Snipe, Operation Condor, and Operation Buzzard. Taliban avoiding the battle with the international coalition after the ‘Anaconda’, began to recover its strength.
In 2003–2004, the Taliban gradually heighten hostilities in southern Afghanistan. The first indicator of Taliban recuperation was the battle of January 27, 2003, when US military conducted operation which named “Mongoose”. In this operation killed 18 Taliban militant and “Hizb-e-Islami”. In this time began terrorist attacks in cities: in Kabul suicide-bomber in a mined car rammed a bus with soldiers from Germany and 1 peaceful Afghan.
On autumn of 2003, the Taliban entrenched in some southern areas and appointed their governors in cities. Because of this critical situation the UN give a permission for ISAF to extend responsibility beyond Kabul. In spite of Taliban, general economic and politic situation in Afghanistan was improved.
In January,2004 the first constitution was adopted and on October 9, was the first presidential elections in the history of the country, where Hamid Karzai won.
In 2005 there were new acts of violence and terrorism. Increased losses of ISAF, military of US and Spanish. The number of attacks, where partisans used improvised explosive devices has increased. However, in September, the Karzai government was able to successfully organize and hold parliamentary elections.
2006-2007. NATO in Southern Afghanistan. ISAF war against Taliban.
From January 2006 started the accommodation of ISAF on the south of Afghanistan. ISAF began to recapture the territories, which were captured by the Taliban. Some provinces were liberated: Helmand, Zabul, Kandahar, Paktika, Uruzgan. In September, Operation was help an Operation Medusa, later – “Mountain Rage”. A substantial part of the coalition was lost. Near to 14people was died from UK, 191 from US and etc.
When on autumn of 2006 British troops left the town of Musa Kala and handing over control to local elders, the Taliban took advantage of this and in February 2007 occupied the city, which was their biggest success since the beginning of the war. When they occupied city there were closed schools, introduced sharia law and residents was forced to pay taxes.
The situation in other parts of Afghanistan was better, the first large offensive against the Taliban was launched in the north of the country in October and November. In this attack German, Norwegian, and Afghan units was participated. Unfortunately, during the hostilities, ISAF had to strike at civilian buildings and homes, resulting in the death of civilians.
Coalition combat operations in Afghanistan in 2008
In this year the situation in country was changeable. The Taliban were not going to give up. They recovered from their wounds and gathered new forces to attack. By this time, the Taliban had established an authoritative position on the Pakistani border in the province of Waziristan, with the support of local residents they built shelters and training camps.
In April-May Taliban started attack a county Garmser which was strategically important, the NATO contingent and the Afghan National Army suffered a defeat. Taliban occupied territory. On April 27, an assassination attempt against Afghan President Hamid Karzai was organized in Kabul.
At the same time, there are disagreements between NATO, ISAF and US. Уach of them wanted to be the commander in chief of all the armed forces. Рowever, as a result of negotiations, the United States continued to command throughout the Afghan region.
In July, the Taliban attacked the prison in Kandahar; more than 1,000 prisoners were released, including arrested Taliban members.
In general, throughout 2008, the Taliban used guerrilla warfare and small-scale skirmishes, avoiding participation in major hostilities. Attacks on patrols, shelling of convoys, road mining, attacks on roadblocks increased markedly. NATO continued (with varying success) to pursue a policy of ‘power democracy’. There was growing discontent among the local population about the presence of NATO in the region. This was largely triggered by the propaganda of the Taliban.
2009 and 2010.
In August 2009, the German side of ISAF with the Afghan security forces started a new operation, whose mission was to liberate Chahar Dara from Taliban`s power. They were able to liberate the county only for a few months, then the Taliban again occupied the territory.
In October, the Taliban attacked a small American outpost in the province of Nuristan near to Pakistan. After night exchange of fire, the Americans left the base and from this time on, there is no foreign military presence. All control is exercised by the Afghan side.
On 12th February began operation ‘Moshtarak’, which was successful. The main participants of this operation, were the American, British and Afghan military.
Durind April-May German and Afghan troops launched an operation in Baghlan-i-Markazi to regain control of the county. In the north-east of Afghanistan in the province of Nuristan, a Taliban detachment invaded Kamdesh and Barga Matal from Pakistani territory. The province after the departure of NATO forces since October 2009 was under the control of the Afghan police. Due to the superiority of the Taliban and the lack of reinforcements, the Afghan police on May 30 surrendered the county of Barga Matal and retreated. The county was ruled by the Taliban. Black and green Taliban flags were raised above administrative buildings in Barga Matal.
The Taliban intimidated the local population, forbidding it to cooperate with the authorities, strenuously mined the roads, armed attacks on the patrols of the Afghan security forces and NATO increased.
2 August Holland began withdrawing troops from Afghanistan. On August 6, the Taliban killed ten unarmed employees of the international charitable Christian organization International Assistance Mission, who provided medical assistance to the Afghans.
According to representatives of the Pentagon, the NATO forces did not achieve any improvement in the situation in Afghanistan by the autumn of 2010, and some analysts said that the general situation in the country had deteriorated.
2011 – 2013
On January 10, 2011, militants of the Islamic Emirate said that they had established control over the district center of Dawn in Balkh province. It was stated that they did not suffer losses and captured trophies in the form of weapons, ammunition and jeep.
On July 12, the brother of the president of Afghanistan, Ahmad Wali Karzai, was killed by Sardar Mohammad. The Taliban stated that the murder was committed by their fighter.
On August 1, 2011 in Khairpur, militants attacked a NATO supply convoy, wounded 4 people and destroyed 10 fuel tankers.
Then the Taliban attacked the territories that were under the protection of foreign troops such as NATO, ISAF and US. Started an open supply of drugs and weapons. 2011 was a year of victory for the Taliban
In 2012, ISAF and its allies tried to save the territories under their protection. Too big losses from NATO and ISAF lead to the fact that they are going to withdraw their troops from the territory of Afghanistan. Foreign troops are attacked by the Afghan security forces. Too much controversy is taking place among the allies, which gives an advantage to the Taliban.
In June 2013, Afghan President Hamid Karzai announced that from June 19, 2013, the Afghan armed forces would assume a major role in ensuring the country’s security.
When US, UK, ISAF and NATO troops began withdrawing from the territory of Afghanistan, insurrections began to gain momentum. In 2014, after the United States and the Allies complete a number of special operations in Afghanistan, the decision is made to end this phase of the war.
At the ceremony which was in Kabul UK officially ended its role in this war. Also, Britain gave its ultimate base, Camp Bastion, to the soldiers of Afghanistan. As a result, after 13 years, UK completed its mission in war in Afghanistan.
On May 27, 2014, US President Barack Obama announced the completion of US military operations in Afghanistan. The United States transferred its last base, Camp Leserneck, to Afghan soldiers. The United States concluded two bilateral and long-term security arrangements between Afghanistan and the United States of America. And the some of US troops remain on the territory of Afghanistan in order to train the Afghan security forces. They also had to support counter-terrorism operations against al-Qaida remnants.
In December 2014, NATO also officially announced the cessation of hostilities at a ceremony held in Kabul.
. In 2015, the Taliban grew stronger and regained their strength after the last battles. From the side of the neighboring states were adherents of the Talib movement, they were joined by more than 1,000 people. At the same time, foreign troops completed their operations in Afghanistan. Afghan troops did not have enough military equipment in the field of aviation and intelligence. Russia in May 2015 closes the path through its territory, which NATO used to transport and transfer military cargo.
After a series of US battles to assist the Afghan side sends troops of the 2nd Battalion.
Next, we are going to talk more about the impact of Afghanistan war on mainly Afghan and generally all other countries or spheres of economy. The Afghanistan is now insecure than it was ever. Since 2001 the Taliban has a control of the main part of the country. And it has increased from that day aggressively. The Afghan war is already second longest war in the US history after Vietnam war. And still US government continue to send their troops with the help of some EU countries and mainly UK.
Let’s begin with the impact of the war on the Afghan society. Of course, the first and main effect we should deal with is the Civilian casualties. Started from 2001 till today, many people in Afghanistan are dying without having any guilt. In 2009 UN had reported that more than 50% of the civilians had died they were blamed for ‘anti-government’ processes. The Weekly Standard website mentioned that almost 80% of the civilian deaths had been caused by Taliban terrorist group, and these innocent people doesn’t keep any anti-government elements on them for their death. There are lots of cases relating to the civilian death. But we would like to touch some statistic numbers and to show how actually big this problem is in our world. According to UN the children and women death number are very huge in the civilian casualties. The statistics show that more than 10 thousand people were killed in just 2017 and this number have increased more in 2018 as too.
As we can see from the graph from 2009 till 2017 the number of civilian deaths is increasing year by year. And this actually means lots. Because this means that every day how many people our community loose, how many children how many women we are losing for the war. And how the global economy is deprived of such people. Since Trump had been president of the USA, he has unveiled a new strategy for the Afghan war. They began to put more military pressure on the Taliban and they did it by with new airstrikes, special military forces, thousands of more US military soldiers and totally 14000 personnel. The new strategy also included some pressure on the Afghan government to take more severe actions to the Taliban. In the following map we can see the main areas that Taliban.
Despite, the many efforts were put against this war, unfortunately all these things have failed. The military army of the US has slowed the Taliban but they couldn’t stop it yet. Many fighters including some important commanders have been killed over the years, but they could keep their manage area under the danger. And despite so many bombings so many losses the Taliban doesn’t face with the financial crisis. In fact, their wealth has been grown in the last years. Islamic scholars, governments, have also joined to many meetings to solve the Afghan war problem, but unfortunately with the US they could only sign few agreements and these agreements generally have bring nothing to solve the problem.
Another problem arising from the war is the health. According to the UN despite so many challenges the healthcare has been increased over the years in the Afghanistan and it has helped the people who have suffered from the war.
The next problem that war has caused is refugees. Since 2001 almost 6 million have returned to Afghanistan but still more than 2 million refugees are still in the outside of the country for the fear of war and death. According to the UN more than 500 thousand people were internally displaced person.
Despite so many challenges the Afghanistan is trying to give better education service to the students to the women as well. Aid Afghanistan for Education (AAE) is one of the best opportunities for the Afghan nation. Since 2003 AAE was established and give the opportunities to the girls and boys who fell out the normal education system in the country. It helps students to get their high school diplomas in 7 to 8 years and provide many trainings and studies for them.