Dickerson, D. L., Venner, K. L., Duran, B., Annon, J. J., Hale, B., & Funmaker, G. (2014). Drum-Assisted Recovery Therapy for Native Americans (Dartna): Results from a Pretest and Focus Groups. American Indian & Alaska Native Mental Health Research: The Journal of the National Center, 21(1), 35–58. https://doi-org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.5820/aian.2101.2014.35
Drum-Assisted Recovery Therapy for Native Americans (DARTNA) is a substance abuse treatment intervention for American Indians and Alaska Natives. This article dives into the study that look into the effectiveness of DARTNA. This study had an initial pretest of DARTNA provided to 10 patients with histories of substance use disorders and also three subsequent focus groups, substance abuse treatment providers, and the DARTNA Community Advisory Board. Initial pretest were analyze the potential benefits of DARTNA and their assessments were collected anonymously on paper. The focus group examine treatment protocol, its cultural appropriateness pertaining to drumming education, activities, culture and community. All focus groups were held at the same treatment program in the Los Angeles with identical procedures and discussion topics. Some questions were added or emphasized based on information from the previous focus groups and moderated by the first author of this article and his assistant. Consent form was reviewed and questions were answered and participate were free to leave the group if they chose at that time. The duration was about 2 hours, and participants received a $40 gift card for participating. Information gathered during this research and participants’ feedback was beneficial in the treatment manual. The overall consensus was that DARTNA was a beneficial culturally based substance abuse treatment intervention.
Fish, J., Osberg, T. M., & Syed, M. (2017). “This is the way we were raised”: Alcohol beliefs and acculturation in relation to alcohol consumption among Native Americans. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 16(2), 219–245. https://doi-org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1080/15332640.2015.1133362
This article looks at a study that examined the beliefs of some Native Americans and how it relates to their alcohol use that focusing on the notion that alcohol is a key component in Native American cultures. This notion was assessed through the Stereotypical Alcohol Beliefs Scale for Native Americans. It measured 20 item which was administered to 144 individuals who identified as Native American along with a measuring perceived norm, alcohol expectancies, and drinking motives. Stereotypical Alcohol Beliefs Scale for Native Americans assessment scores found to be strongly associated with typical weekly drinking, alcohol expectancies, and drinking motives. Also, hierarchical regression analyses revealed that a level of acculturation shows a link between alcohol beliefs and weekly drinking whereas Native Americans who were less perspective to mainstream culture demonstrated a positive association between their cultural alcohol beliefs and their weekly drinking. The findings suggest that alcohol beliefs can an appropriate supplementary target for interventions for individuals who are not oriented to the mainstream culture. **
Fish, J., Livingston, J. A., VanZile-Tamsen, C., & Wolf, D. A. P. S. (2017). Victimization and substance use among native american college students. Journal of College Student Development, 58(3), 413-431. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.liberty.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.liberty.edu/docview/1897781222?accountid=12085
The Tribal Critical Race Theory propose that Native American students have low retention rates cause by the structural barriers and racism present in colleges and universities resulting in placing Native American students at risk for victimization and substance use negatively impacting their academic success. This study purpose is to look at the rates of victimization as often as used among Native American students versus other students and the impact it has on their academic experience. The proposed study looked at substance use, rate and types of victimization of Native American students compared to other students of ethnicity. The study also looked at victimization and substance abuse impacted their academic performance and whether victimization and substance abuse are a predictor of academic success among students. We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected as part of the American College Health Association (ACHA) National College Health Assessment (NCHA) with permission from ACHA. Results revealed that Native Americans students are victimized at a higher rate than other students and slightly lowered than other ethnic group when comparison of substance use. **
Gone, J., & Calf Looking, P. (2015). The Blackfeet Indian culture camp: Auditioning an alternative indigenous treatment for substance use disorders. Psychological Services., 12(2), 83–91. https://doi.org/10.1037/ser0000013
American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) communities are experiencing many health disparities to include high rates of substance use disorders. Psychological services for Natives are generally funded by the federal Indian Health Service and typically administered by tribal governments. Those treatment programs involved an inclusion of traditional cultural practices or adaptation of conventional treatment approaches within treat programs. In this article looks at a third possibility with collaborative, community-based development of an alternative indigenous intervention implemented as a form of substance use disorder treatment on its own terms. A trial implementation of a seasonal cultural immersion camp was conducted based on traditional Pikuni Blackfeet Indian cultural practices with 4 male clients from the reservation’s federally funded treatment program. The trial consists of four camps all distinctive, first one was flexible and easygoing, with the second being of leisured paced, the third camp was sensitively guided while the fourth was community base. All camps involved ritual participation, traditional skills, and other cultural activities. At the conclusion of the trial it was noted that although funding affected the scope of the intervention it shows promise for the Native American communities and highlighted the need for trials and information concerning the delivery of community-based psychological services for Natives.**
Greenfield, B. L., Venner, K. L., Tonigan, J. S., Honeyestewa, M., Hubbell, H., & Bluehorse, D. (2018). Low rates of alcohol and tobacco use, strong cultural ties for Native American college students in the Southwest. Addictive Behaviors, 82, 122–128. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.02.032
College attendance is associated with an increased risk for substance use, yet we know little about substance use among Native American college students and its regional variation. The following study examined substance, drug use and their connection to gender, institution, age, and cultural involvement related to Native American college students in the Southwest region. Online survey completed by Native American community and university college students in a large Southwest city concerning substance use and involvement in cultural activities. Survey reveals the intent of substance and drug use among Native Americans student and rates of use of student in the Southwest. **
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Legha, R., Raleigh-Cohn, A., Fickenscher, A. et al. (2014). Challenges to providing quality substance abuse treatment services for American Indian and Alaska native communities: perspectives of staff from 18 treatment centers. BMC Psychiatry 14, 181 doi:10.1186/1471-244X-14-181
This qualitative study examined the challenges of offering adequate substance abuse treatment services for American Indian and Alaska Native communities. Data was gathered from the Centers for American Indian and Alaska Native Health’s Evidence- Based Practices and Substance Abuse Treatment for Native Americans project. Programs used were of those with innovative clinical services that represented thee geographic, cultural diversity of the Native Americans communities which included at cultural treatment approach, evidence- based treatment and federal funding for services. Among Native Americans, substance abuse is still problematic despite available treatment to Native Americans and Alaska Natives communities. Interviews were conducted along with focus groups at several substance abuse treatment centers with 76 participants. Results pointed to three areas of concern; infrastructure of the treatment settings, associates of service and treatment system and the availability of clinical services. Findings suggest services provided in the Native American communities more individualized, comprehensive, integrated and more longer-term care. **
Meyer, Aleta et al. (2018). Addressing Substance-use Problems in Tribal Home Visiting. Infant mental health journal. 39.3 : 287–294. Web.
This article highlights an alarming fact that among ethnic groups, Native American has the highest consumption rate of alcohol use noted during home‐visiting programs serving tribal communities. A need to address substance‐use problems among the families and the community is crucial. An online means was used in this study consisted of 144 participants from a local Indian reservation and the surrounding area. The questionnaire included the 20-item preliminary version of the Stereotypical Alcohol Beliefs Scale for Native Americans, Daily Drinking Questionnaire, Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol Questionnaire, Drinking Motives Measure, Rutgers Alcohol Problems Index, and the Vancouver Index of Acculturation wish demographics measurements. Nine Tribal home‐visiting programs initiative utilized to complete a survey about their approaches to addressing substance‐use services in their home‐visiting services. The survey was self‐administered online and covered training of home visitors to identify and address substance‐use issues, substance‐use prevention activities and screening procedures within home‐visiting services and referral and treatment outside of home visiting. Results showed a reduction of substance use and more focus should be placed on designing program enhancements, training and staffing, monitoring performance, and evaluating outcomes are needed to best serve families with young children who are struggling with the negative impacts of substance‐use problems in home based programs.**
Patterson—Silver Wolf (Adelv unegv Waya), D.A., Welte, J.W., Barnes, G.M. et al. (2015) J Gambl Stud 31: 1387. https://doi-org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1007/s10899-014-9512-z
This article dives into a study that looked at the increase in gambling trouble and alcohol abuse among Native Americans in the US. Traditional Native American cultural identity which may be an underlining factor for gambling and alcohol abuse among Native Americans. Telephone interviews were utilized to conduct a survey including 415 Native American adults throughout the United States. Gambling issues among Native Americans and non-Native Americans were similar in the past according previous data collected. However, present data collection points out that Native Americans have a higher rate of gambling problem as their counterparts and alcohol consumption was much less in previous years. Analysis hints at a socioeconomic status linkage to increase odds of gambling problems for Native Americans. Those closer deeper cultural self-association had a higher level of gambling problems versus those that distance themselves from their roots. No significant cultural factors predicted alcohol abuse. More investigation is needed into the impact of cultural factors on gambling tendency and problems. **
Skewes, M. C., Hallum‐Montes, R., Gardner, S. A., Blume, A. W., Ricker, A. and FireMoon, P. (2019). Partnering with Native Communities to Develop a Culturally Grounded Intervention for Substance Use Disorder. Am J Community Psychol, 64: 72-82. doi:10.1002/ajcp.12354
This article looks at numerous studies on the crisis of alcohol and drug and alcohol‐related morbidity and mortality within the American Indians and Alaska Natives versus compared to other groups in the United States and the scarce availability of evidence‐based treatments that are culturally appropriate and acceptable. The research study program purpose was to promote health equity in rural communities, by developing academic‐community partnership to create a culturally grounded intervention for adults battling substance use disorder living within the reservations. Interview study consisted of in‐depth qualitative interviews with 25 tribal members knowledgeable about substance use and recovery on the reservation. The goal was to understand social norms and cultural conceptualizations of substance use to inform the development of a sustainable, community‐driven intervention. Results of the study suggest a holistic approach to recovery that spiritual and cultural aspects was important to the community and necessary for the intervention to succeed along with multi‐layer intervention for individuals, families, and the overall community. This study offered value information that can be implemented in the future and strengthened relationship within the servicing community. ***
Walsh-Buhi, M. L. (2017). “Please Don’t Just Hang a Feather on a Program or Put a Medicine Wheel on Your Logo and Think ‘Oh Well, This Will Work’”. Family & Community Health, 40(1), 81–87. doi: 10.1097/FCH.0000000000000125.
When looking at the latest theories on substance abuse prevention initiatives, many are based after Western ideology and that lack any indigenous perspective. This article dives into research study that look at the perspective of several theories applied throughout the Native American communities. Interviews are conducted to identify elements of Native Americans perspective or the lack thereof within this SAP programs. interviews were conducted over following now what did you mean recorded with a maximum of 90 minutes. Waivers and written consent were collected, transcripts were created for future references. Findings reveal that consensus is divided on the effectiveness of theories utilize within the Native American community. This divide was clearly seen among the professionals in distinctive academia. **