Tourism is a variety of tourism activities supported by various facilities and services provided by the community, businessmen, government and local government. Tourism is a trip that is carried out by a person or group of people by visiting a particular place for recreational purposes, personal development, or studying tourist attractions that are visited in a temporary period. Overall activities related to tourism and are multidimensional and multidisciplinary in nature that emerge as a manifestation of the needs of each person and country as well as interactions between tourists and local communities fellow tourists, the Government, Local Governments and Entrepreneurs are referred to as tourism. Tourism aims to enhance economic growth, improve people’s welfare, eradicate poverty, overcome unemployment, preserve nature, the environment and resources, promote culture, uplift the nation’s image, foster a love for the motherland, strengthen national identity and unity, strengthen friendship between nations (Law Number 9 of 2009 concerning Tourism).
Tourism is one of the sectors of choice of regency and city government in Indonesia as regulated in Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia Number 38 of 2007 concerning Division of Government Affairs between the Central Government, Provincial Governments, and Regency / Municipal Governments, where the Central Government is in accordance with autonomy regions have delegated the authority to manage their resources and wealth with the capabilities and strengths that each has. This choice of governance is a real government affair and has the potential to improve people’s welfare in accordance with the conditions, uniqueness, and superior potential of the region concerned. Regional autonomy also places districts and cities as centers of growth. Tourism is a field that can participate in advancing the region through increasing local revenue from tourism. Therefore, each region has designed various offers on the potential of the region to potential investors to invest in their regions, and this is expected to also be able to increase the tourism potential of the regency / city area.
Regional development is one part of national development that cannot be separated from the principle of regional autonomy. The country of Indonesia, as we know it, is a developing country that has a wide range of tourism potential, both natural and cultural tourism because Indonesia has a variety of tribes, customs, and culture because of the geographical location of the country of Indonesia as a tropical country that produces natural beauty and animal diversity.
The role of tourism in development broadly consists of three aspects, namely the economic aspect (foreign exchange, taxes), the aspect of cooperation between countries (international friendship), and the cultural aspect (introducing our culture to foreign tourists). Indonesia’s tourism development as an internal part of national development that is carried out in a sustainable manner, aims to help realize the improvement of the personality and abilities of people and people of Indonesia, by utilizing science and technology and taking into account the challenges of global development (Sedarmayanti, 2014).
In addition, based on the work report of the Ministry of Tourism, the contribution of the tourism sector to the economy in Indonesia (GDP) reached 5% or 1% lower than the government’s target of 6% with the amount of foreign exchange obtained reaching Rp 253, 25 trillion. Besides that, Indonesia is also able to become the Top-20 fastest growing travel destination in the world, won 27 Wonderful Branding Indonesia awards in 13 countries, and Wonderful Indonesia Branding Strategy for online penetration ranked 47th (beating Thailand (68) and Malaysia (85) ) according to the World Economic Forum (WEF) 2017. Reflecting on each of these achievements, it is very necessary to create an innovative and sustainable marketing strategy to realize the ideals of the Indonesian Ministry of Tourism which is to make Indonesia a World Tourism Center.
Tourist Return Interests
Interest is defined as the will, desire or liking (Kamisa in Lita, 2009). Interest is something that is personal and closely related to attitude. Interests and attitudes are the basis for prejudice, and interest is also important in making decisions. According to Umar (2014), interest in revisiting is a behavior that arises as a response to an object that indicates the customer’s desire to re-visit. From the two definitions above, it can be concluded that the interest in revisiting is something personal in the form of behavior that arises in response to an object that results in the customer’s desire to make a repeat visit.
In this case the theory of interest in revisiting interest is taken from the theory of repurchase interest in a product, so that in several categories the interest in visiting can be applied to purchase interest. Interest is the urge to motivate someone to take action. The desire to travel in the future is influenced by their attitude towards their past experiences. While the theory of reasoned action and planned behavior is the most commonly used model for predicting behavior since the early 1980s, consistent results show that attitudes, subjective norms and control explain variations in future visiting desires.
Product is the center of marketing activities. Product can be goods or services. If there is no product, there is no transfer of ownership, there is no marketing. All marketing activities are used to support product movement. One thing to keep in mind is how great the promotion, distribution, and price efforts are if not followed by a quality product, liked by the customer, then the marketing mix business will not succeed. So keep in mind what products will be marketed, how the tastes of today’s customers, what their needs and wants. Needs related to customer needs. The customer buys an item because it is needed. But there are also sometimes other elements contained behind the goods such as beauty when wearing them, according to taste, smooth, color, sweet, fresh, and so on. Therefore the product produced must consider ‘product features’, namely the model, appearance, special features, attributes of the product. Types of sub-component product combinations can be solved again into four. The first and foremost component is the number of types of goods that will be offered to companies offering services, are all kinds of services that will be offered. The second component is all special services (technical, maintenance, and services after sales transactions) offered by companies that offer to support the sale of goods (after sales service). The third component is the stamp along with its reputation, quality, toughness, and general factors of use. Although the quality and durability factors are also important for consumer goods, they are usually considered an important part of the trade mark and reputation of the goods, if not treated as separate factors. The fourth component is concerned with the appearance of the goods and the packaging.
Promotion in today’s modern marketing cannot be ignored. This promotion is highly developed during the ‘selling concept’ in which producers rely heavily, very high hopes for increased sales by using promotions. In recent years producers have begun to pay attention to their tastes, by making goods that meet the needs and wants of customers. Between promotions and products can not be separated and there must be a balance.
In a combination of promotions including advertising activities, personal selling, sales promotion, publicity, all of which are used by companies to increase sales. The scope of promotional activities is influenced by the types of activities carried out. The scope of promotional coverage carried out only by advertising alone will be narrower than being used simultaneously in conjunction with technical activities depending on the type of variation of media used in each component, if the advertising media used is a national daily, then the distance of advertising reach will be further than if only used by the local daily. Promotional activities from rival companies are other factors that need to be considered. If the company is not well-known and the competition is too active in its promotion, the company needs to take certain steps.
Types of Research
This research is a descriptive study with a quantitative approach that aims to explain an empirical phenomenon accompanied by statistical data, characteristics, and patterns of relationships between variables. When viewed from its characteristics, this study is included in correlational research, namely the type of research with the characteristics of the problem in the form of the influence between two or more variables. The purpose of correlational research is to find answers fundamentally about influence and influence and investigate the extent of that influence, making it easier for writers to obtain objective data in order to know and understand the management of marketing strategies in increasing tourists in Dairi. In this study, the dependent variable is the tourist return interests (Y) influenced by independent variables namely: product (X1) and tourism promotion (X2).
Research Location and Time
The study was conducted at the Pariwasata and Culture office in Dairi Regency because the Office was focused on marketing tourism potential in Dairi Regency.
Population and Sample
In this study, the population is archipelago tourists who are on or have been touring in Dairi Regency. The population in this study cannot be well defined, and demographic information about the population cannot be obtained precisely, so random sampling cannot be done (Ma’ruf, 2005). For this reason, the sampling method used in this study is a convenience sampling method which is a quick and concise sampling. 110 samples are deemed sufficient according to researchers to be samples that can represent the population.
Data Analysis Method
This study uses descriptive qualitative analysis methods to determine the existence of relationships between dependent variables and independent using inductive statistics correlation with multiple regression analysis. The qualitative descriptive objective in this study is to provide a systematic, factual and accurate description of certain facts.
The data analysis method used in this study is multiple regression analysis (Sugiyono, 2004). Therefore the research formulation in the path analysis framework only revolves around the independent variable (X1, X2, …, Xk) influencing the dependent variable Y, or how much direct, indirect, and total influence or simultaneous set of independent variables (X1 , X2, …, Xk) to the dependent variable Y. Hypothesis testing using t test, F test, r squared test.
Effect of Product on Tourist Return Interests
Product variables are declared significant with a significance value of 0,000. The product variable is stated to have a significant effect on the interest of the repeat visit. This means that the product has an important role in the interest of tourists visiting. Product variable regression coefficient has a positive value of 0.108. This shows that the relationship formed between the product and the interest of the repeat visit was positive.
These results support the research conducted by Siburian (2013), Pandiangan (2012), suggesting that the product significantly influences consumer interest in revisiting. When the customer believes that he is satisfied by a service product, and shows his desire to rely on the service product, then that customer might form a positive purchase intention for the service product. A satisfying service product will bring customers to try or reuse it and continue to recommend the service product to others, therefore the product is the most important element.
Effect of Tourism Promotion on Tourist Return Interests
Promotion variable is declared significant with a significance value of 0,000. The promotion variable is stated to have a significant effect on the interest of the repeat visit. This means that promotion has an important role in the interest of a return visit. The regression coefficient of the promotion variable has a positive value of 0.265. This shows that the relationship formed between promotion and return interest is positive.
These results support research previously conducted by Siburian (2013), Lubis (2012), Munandar (2014) which suggests that promotion significantly influences consumer interest in revisiting. Promotion is the key where potential buyers of a service product can find out a particular service product. Good promotion, attractive, and right on target will attract new customers to come, try or buy a service product and participate in promotion.
Based on the results of research and discussion in the previous chapter, the following conclusions can be drawn:
- Product has a positive and significant effect on tourist return interests in Dairi Regency.
- Tourism promotion has a positive and significant effect on tourist return interests in Dairi Regency.
- Products and tourism promotion as independent variables in this study proved to simultaneously have a positive and significant effect on tourist return interests in Dairi Regency as the dependent variable.
- The amount of product and tourism promotion factors towards tourist return interests is 59,8% and 40,2% are other factors that influence tourist return interests other than the factors examined in this study.