Application Of Microbial Enzymes In Food Industry
In our society, using enzymes or microorganisms in food preparation has become widely known. As new technology has been developed, new application fields have been developed and pioneered. Microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and the other enzymes are highly used for improving the taste and texture and eventually obtain enormous economic benefits to industries. With the advancement of technology, the use of recombinant DNA technology has made it possible to produce new enzymes suitable for specific food processing conditions. These enzymes can be developed by the selection of microorganisms sampled in various environments or by modification of known enzymes using modern protein engineering methods. As a result, several important food processing enzymes such as amylase and lipases have been available. From the help of recombinant DNA technology, it is available to produce high-yielding enzymes for specific food processing conditions. By the genetic engineering tools, enzymes genes are replicated and expressed on a large scale in host microorganisms. Moreover, enzyme technology can be used to create food distribution with new functional attributes using structural design principles. Enzymes utilising food grade proteins and polysaccharides as substrates have recently gained interest among food scientists. The use of enzymes for food structure is an economically and ecologically feasible alternative to the use of chemical cross-linking agents. The use of enzyme in industrial production can affect environmentally. Enzymatic process is one of the examples that can be used in a broad range of industries since they are rapid in action and capable to save raw materials, energy, chemicals and water compared to conventional process. The properties of enzymatic process help environmental improvement and assess whether it can play a role in the progress of clean industrial production. Throughout various applications of enzyme, people can gain benefits in time, economically and environmentally. As under development of enzyme technology, more and more techniques will be developed and eventually gain huge yields enzymes. Therefore, as times goes by, various and unique traits of enzymes will be produced and lead enormous development not only for enzyme technology but also in food processing conditions.
Microorganisms give us much benefits in our lives. Especially microorganisms have been used in fermentation and the fermentation processes are various for applying in the preparation of food items. Since microbial enzymes are more stable than plant or animal enzymes, it apply a major role in the food industry. They produced in fermentation technology in a cost-effective way with little time and space requirements, and high consistency makes process modification and optimization conveniently. One of the microbial enzyme called α-amylase affects significantly in the food industry. α-amylases are starch-degrading enzymes that hydrolyse α-1,4 glycosidic bonds of polysaccharides. These enzymes are spread in all living organisms. Broad applications of α-amylases in the food industry include baking, brewing, starch liquefaction and fire extinguishing agents (J Food Eng. 2006). Baking industry is one of the food industries that α-amylases can apply. By using α-amylases, it can enhance the flavour and improve bread quality. During baking, α-amylases are added to the dough for converting starch to smaller dextrins, that lastly fermented by yeast. It affects to improve the taste and toasting qualities of bread. α-amylases are also used in manufacturing high molecular-mass branched dextrins which used as glazing agent for the production of powdered foods. Starch industry is also one of the food industries that the idea for α-amylases is linked. Especially, the concept for starch liquefaction which convert starch into glucose is significantly applied. There are 3 procedures for the enzymatic conversion of starch: gelatinization, liquefaction and saccharification. For gelatinization, the formation of a viscous suspension due to the dissolution of starch granules should be involved. This is linked to the liquefaction which decreases viscosity and contain partial hydrolysis. Finally, glucose and maltose are produced by saccharification. To produce ethanol, starch is converted to a fermentable sugar by the action of α-amylases and later, fermentation of the sugars to alcohol is carried out by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The application of α-amylases involves clarification of fruit juice, which is carried out through cellulases and pectinases to improve yield and make the process cost effective (Adv Appl Sci Res,2015).
Glucoamylases are exo-reactive enzymes that release β-glucose by catalyzing the hydrolytic enzymes of polysaccharide starches at the non-reducing end. Most of glucoamylases are stable in low temperature, however in high temperature, they lose activity due to conformational change. Glucoamylases used in various range of application in food industry. It can help baking industry to improve flour quality, bread crust colour and the quality of high fibre baked products (Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1996). Especially, glucoamylases help produce of high-glucose syrups and high-fructose syrups. It is available for converting the starch in the flour to maltose and fermentable sugars, and the fermentation by yeasts shows to dough rise. Moreover, these enzymes for the production of glucose is essential that can increase the yields of ethanol by fermentation. Lastly, glucoamylase shows significant role in the production of sake and beer. This results glucoamylases metabolise dextrins and convert to fermentable sugars with decreased calorific value and alcohol content in the beer (Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2014).
Proteases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis by peptide bonds in polypeptides and proteins. They are generally used in detergent and pharmaceutical, followed by food industries. Proteases are necessary for the food industries as the global demand has been growing at a compound annual rate of 5.3% during the period 2014-2019. The demand for proteases will even grow more as they find applications not only in leather processing but also biochemical processes. Proteases enzymes can obtained by animals, plants and microorganisms. Based on the site of action on polypeptide chain, proteases are divided into two groups: exopeptidases and endopeptidases. While the endopeptidases act in the inner region of polypeptide chains, exopeptidases act on the end of polypeptide chains. Plant proteases like bromelain and ficin are variously used in food industry as brewing, tenderization of meat, coagulation of milk and as a digestive aid. Moreover it can be used to improve the flavour, nutritional value, solubility and digestibility of food proteins which is to modify their functional properties including coagulation and emulsification (Int J Appl Biol Pharm. 2014). Similarly to α-amylases and glucoamylases, proteases are used in baking industry to produce bread, waffles and some baked foods. These enzymes reduce the mixing time and dough consistency and regulate the gluten strength in bread to improve the texture and flavour. Another application for proteases is linked to dairy industry. The proteases help to the flavour of cheese which used for the acceleration of cheese ripening and to change the functional properties and reduce allergenic properties of milk products. For the production of cheese, proteases are used to hydrolyse specific peptide bonds to generate macropeptides.
Lactase is a significant biotechnological enzyme in food industry because of the hydrolysis of lactose. During hydrolysis of lactose, the enzyme called β- Galactosidase helps to catalyse (Enzyme Res. 2010). It is obtained from numerous biological system including animals, plants and microorganisms. The production of β-galactosidase from microorganisms like bacteria, fungi and yeast results higher yield and thus relatively low cost of enzyme. When the condition of pH as 6.5~7.0, it is generally used for the hydrolysis of lactose in milk. Not only for food industry but also industrial industry can be applied of β-galactosidase. In industrial applications, there are two significant major classes of β- galactosidase. One is cold-active and thermostable β-galactosidase. It is produced by using microorganisms with GRAS status for the application in milk and dairy products. To use Lactase with milk and milk-based products, it can gain benefit that reduce lactose intolerance in people. Moreover, the properties and creaminess of ice cream are greatly improved after the lactose was hydrolysed with lactase. The other advantage of hydrolysing lactose into monomers is the reduction requirement of sweeteners as the monomers could improve the sweetness of the products. Lactase also used in the hydrolysis of whey which is a product of cheese production and it is composed of lactose, proteins and minerals. Later, it causes critical and fatal environmental issues that associated with dairy industry as lactose is related with high biological oxygen demand(BOD) and chemical oxygen demand(COD). Lastly, lactase is the formation of galactooligosaccharides that can be used as prebiotic food ingredients.
Lipases are enzymes that catalyse the hydrolysis of long-chain triglycerides. They naturally exist in the stomach and pancreas of humans and other animal species in order to digest fats and lipids. Microbial lipases are produced through bacteria, fungi and yeast. Microbial enzymes contribute about 90% of the global lipase market. This enzyme applied in various industries including food, biofuel detergents and animal feed. It is also used as leather, textile and paper. In the food and beverage industry, the use of lipases is applied in dairy, baking, fruit juice, beer and wine industries. For commercial uses, lipases are mainly used for flavour development in dairy products and processing of other foods that contains fat (Indian J Biotechnol. 2007). It acts on the milk fat after hydroxylation to produce free fatty acid, thereby improving the characteristic taste of cheese. Lipases are also used as flavour development agent in butter and margarine, also to extend the shelf life of various baking products. In alcoholic beverages like wine, the aroma can be modified using lipase. Palmitic acid, and substrate acids have a melting point around 37 ° C and is used to improve the quality of cocoa butter which can easily be dissolved at 37 ° C. When the lipases is immoblised on the pH and oxygen electrode in combination with the glucose oxidant, it can be used for the determination of triglycerides and blood cholesterol. The lipases such as microbial lipases find application in the production of ice cream, single- cell protein, carbohydrate esters and amino acid derivatives. Moreover, lipase also be used in the processing of different waste streams which are released from food industries.
Enzymes find application in food, detergent and pharmaceutical industries. Nowadays, enzymatic hydrolysis and enzyme-based processes are preferred to chemical processes because of environmental friendliness, efficient process control, high yield, low purification cost, and process safety. Compared to animal and plant enzymes, microbial enzymes can be produced very effectively by other fermentation techniques such as solid state and submerged fermentation. It is also easy to produce microbial enzymes on a large scale. Microbial enzymes can be easily modified through a variety of molecular and biochemical approaches. Excessive production of microbial enzymes with high specific activity can be achieved by over-pressing their genes. Although many enzymes of microbial origin have not been studied yet, there are many chances to find broad industrial applications of microbial enzymes especially in the food sector.
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