Autism Spectrum Disorder: Prevalence, Risk Factors, Treatment And Prevention

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I. Introduction

Autism is a condition that is present from birth or very early in development that affects essential human behaviours such as social interaction, the ability to communicate ideas and feelings, imagination, and the establishment of relationships with others. It usually has life-long effects on just how children acquire to be social beings, look after themselves, and to join in the community.

Autism has grown into the most common neurological and developmental disorder detected in children nowadays. There is no identified cure for autism, and the variations of the symptoms of autism in each situation make it difficult to target a specific set of current treatments. However, some behaviour management therapies, specifically physical therapy, may help to significantly control the unwanted symptoms in young children with autism spectrum disorder.

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II. Description

Autism Spectrum Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that disturbs child growth in a number of significant areas, which include communication, social interaction and repetitive patterns of behaviour. Autism is similarly commonly associated with sensory sensitivities and sensory processing problems.

While Autism Spectrum Disorder is a complex lifelong developmental disability, with appropriate intervention children and adults with Autism can make significant progress and live fulfilling lives. Consequently, it is imperative that individuals with Autism have access to specialist services that understand their needs and are experienced in developing their skills and strengths.

III. Prevalence

According to the 2017 Autism in Australia report, autism is most prevalent among children aged five to 14, with 83 per cent of Australians with an autism diagnosis aged under 25. However, while children are more likely to have a diagnosis of autism than adults are, this does not mean children 'grow out' of autism.

IV. Risk Factors

The total of children diagnosed by autism spectrum disorder is increasing. It remains not clear whether this is due to better finding and reporting or a real growth in the number of cases, or together. Autism spectrum disorder disturbs children of all races and nationalities, but definite factors rise a child's risk. These may consist of:

  • Child's sex. Males are approximately four times more possible to develop autism spectrum disorder than females are.
  • Family backround. Families who have one child with autism spectrum disorder have a bigger risk of having another child with the disorder. It is also not unusual for parents or relatives of a child with autism spectrum disorder to have insignificant problems with social or communication skills themselves or to participate in certain behaviours characteristic of the disorder.
  • Very preterm babies. Babies born earlier 26 weeks of pregnancy may have a more risk of autism spectrum disorder.
  • Parents' ages. There may possibly a connection among children born to older parents and autism spectrum disorder, but more study is needed to establish this relation.

V. Causes

There is no identified single cause of autism. Many causes of autism have been examined and the understanding is still incomplete.

Investigation shows that genetic factors prevail but it is unclear which genes may be responsible. It is usually agreed, however, that autism is likely to have numerous causes, as well as some pre-natal factors that result in the common signs of autism.

Autism also have a tendency to occur more often than expected among people who have certain medical conditions including fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, congenital rubella syndrome and untreated phenylketonuria (PKU). It is more common in males than females.

VI. Treatment

In numerous instances, autism spectrum disorder is a lifetime disorder. Even though there is no cure, children who are detected and treated early can get better. There is no single treatment, but rather altered approaches suited to each child to improve behaviour and communication. These include intensive skill building and education sessions. These provide structure, direction, and organization for the child and family.

Over the past two decades, research on the effect of diet and nutrition on autism has been increasing, with a focus on the role of food additives, refined sugar, food allergies, and fatty acid metabolism.

However, there has been a lack of rigorous research studies in this field, and to date there is no sound conclusive research evidence to support the efficacy of any nutritional interventions in improving symptoms of autism spectrum disorder.

In addition, for some interventions there are concerns side effects and a lack of rigorous evidence concerning safety; for example, for those on a gluten and casein-free diet, there may be a risk of decreased bone cortical thickness.

VII. Prevention

There is no way to prevent autism spectrum disorder, but there are treatment possibilities. Early diagnosis and intervention is most helpful and can develop behaviour, skills and language development. Nevertheless, intervention is helpful at any age. Though children commonly do not grow up autism symptoms, they may learn to function well.

In unusual cases, doctors also say, a baby can be born with birth flaws if the mother was exposed to certain chemicals while she was pregnant. However, doctors cannot find out, throughout pregnancy, if your baby will have autism. Although you cannot avoid having a child with an autistic disorder, you can increase your chances of having a healthy baby by doing these existence changes: Live healthy. Have consistent check-ups, eat balanced meals, and keep fit. Make sure you have good prenatal care, and take all suggested vitamins and supplements.

VIII. Conclusion

Autism remains a major language disorder in Australia and around the world. This disorder affects children during their early stages of development. As a result, autistic children develop impaired communication ability. Assistance by parents and other close people is necessary to help affected children to cope with the situation since there is permanent cure known.

Although there is no cure, there have been significant strides in identifying, developing and implementing new treatments every day. Children with ASD are often able to lead full, happy, and productive lives, interacting with society on their own terms. One can only hope that the strides of today will be not only matched but also outpaced in the future, as ASD becomes not a mysterious disorder of unknown origin, but a minor affliction overcome by millions, unidentifiable and without stigma in the mainstream world.

VIIII. Reference List


  1. (2019, January 07).
  2. (2017, August 30).
  3. (© 2019 Autism Association of Western Australia).
  4. Jones, S. (2019).
  5. Maisonneuve H,, & Floret D. Presse Med. (2016, September)
  6. Sandra, J. (2019, September 11). Retrieved from
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Autism Spectrum Disorder: Prevalence, Risk Factors, Treatment And Prevention. (2022, March 17). Edubirdie. Retrieved July 16, 2024, from
“Autism Spectrum Disorder: Prevalence, Risk Factors, Treatment And Prevention.” Edubirdie, 17 Mar. 2022,
Autism Spectrum Disorder: Prevalence, Risk Factors, Treatment And Prevention. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 16 Jul. 2024].
Autism Spectrum Disorder: Prevalence, Risk Factors, Treatment And Prevention [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Mar 17 [cited 2024 Jul 16]. Available from:

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