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Bacteria And Growth Hormone

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Human Growth Hormone (HGH) is used medically to treat patients and especially children who suffer from pituitary deficiency. This hormone considered to be a protein which contains a specific molecular weight of 22,000 which is extracted or taken from the human pituitary glands (Dr. David Goeddel, 1979) . It was produced using molecular biological techniques derived from a specific bacteria and it was announced by the formal communication of Genentech’s results to a specific community at Miles’s Symposium. In addition successfully HGH was not only treating children who suffer from hypopituitary it had several values in treating another diseases such as, gastric bleeding, burns, bone disintegration, bone fractures, HGH isn’t limited into those diseases only it also used to cure several diseases too but those are the most known an treated. (L. Fryklund,K. Fhölenhag,H. Flodh,B. Holmström,A. Skottner-Lundin,B. Strindberg,A. Wichman, 1982). So, after announcing the successful production of bacteria of HGH it will give a lot of benefits by enabling them to produce sufficient quantities or amount to treat all those patients who could have a very advantage benefit from it. The supplies of HGH got be known very limited because scientists research was restricted in specific diseases , but nowadays there’s adequate supplies of HGH produced by microorganisms which will enable clinicals or doctors to benefit from these important medical or therapeutic uses. Molecular biology techniques was used to derive the HGH hormone from a specific bacteria gene, so those techniques involve by combining genes of different organisms to produce a hybrid molecule. Its known that genes are composed of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid),this is when it contains a specific record where its genetic information is encoded. Scientists started to insert a specific gene that carries the genetic information of the HGH into a special plasmid. So, plasmids are normal bacterial cell they’re considered to be circular pieces of DNA where’s new pieces of DNA can be inserted by using the recombinant DNA techniques. Then, the plasmid got inserted into a specific bacterial stain, once it got injected inside the bacteria the HGH DNA used template to produce the HGH protein. The scientific team which was led by David Goeddel, Ph.D., and Peter Seeburg, Ph.D., both of them achieved the production of the HGH in bacteria by synthetic DNA fragments which was used in their project that were made by Keiichi Itakura, Ph.D., and coworkers who joined them at the City of hope National Medical Center in Duarte, California (Dr. David Goeddel, 1979).

Why use Human Growth Hormone (HGH)?

HGH is important for a human being growth especially kids who are under age but it is also included in other body parts including bones, muscle weight, and emotions. We have several of different hormones that controls different body parts which functions and processes additionally our growth and development system, our metabolism speed, sexual function, reproduction, and emotions. It also help to steady proteins in body and breakdown fats to help giving the energy needed for tissue growth (L. Fryklund,K. Fhölenhag,H. Flodh,B. Holmström,A. Skottner-Lundin,B. Strindberg,A. Wichman, 1982). HGH levels can change throughout the day, and our daily physical activity plays a big role. By exercising and having similar activities to exercising it can cause increase to the HGH naturally which can help with sleep, stress, and low levels of blood sugar. Small changes in the HGH can affect the body for example, too much or too less of HGH can cause obvious growth problems. Too less of HGH can cause being too short which can be diagnosed with dwarfism although some people use it for some purposes such as building muscles or to improve their performance or to slow aging which doesn’t support this existing evidence. (Brian Wu, 2019). In children who suffer from lack of HGH they may or may not be smaller at birth but it will appear by the time such as being smaller at size or height at abnormal range than their classmates and growing less than 2 inches per year although some children their body suffer from lack of producing HGH when they’re born and it continue to be continuous throughout their lives so there’s couple of symptoms of HGH deficiency that appear in children such as:

  • Looking way much younger than other children in their age in an abnormal way.
  • Having a chubby look or a bit overweight.
  • Un equally distributed hair growth.
  • Late puberty.

Most probably in children the lack of HGH is known as a part of a genetic condition but sometimes the causes of it is probably unknown.

In adults mostly known that the lack of HGH is because of the damage to the pituitary gland which can be permanent and this damage it could have been appeared in childhood or adulthood, there’s other causes which include:

  • Having a radiation therapy can be a cause.
  • Fell on head and caused an injury.
  • Specific infection called meningitis.

Problems with producing the HGH due to damage to pituitary is commonly known due to pituitary tumor because pituitary can be damaged by the tumor itself or by a specific treatment such as surgery and radiotherapy.

In adults lack of HGH can cause several of problems which include:

  • Depression and anxiety.
  • Gain fat around body waist.
  • Gain the risk to have a heart disease and stroke.
  • Having a weak heart.
  • Weak muscles and bones.
  • Always feeling tired.
  • Increase the ability to think.
  • Other conditions.

HGH deficiency can also be combined with one or more hormone deficiencies although some medical conditions can also have HGH treatment for their own sake which include:

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  • Turner’s Syndrome : Women with this medical issue suffer from the lack of development female sexual characteristics.
  • Prader-Willi Syndrome : A genetic disorder due to having feeding difficulties, weak muscles, lack of growth and late of development.
  • Noonan Syndrome: It’s an also genetic disorder which interferes with the exact development of the various part of the body.
  • Chronic Kidney Disease can also be a common due to lack of HGH

Production of Human Growth Hormone (HGH) using bacteria by Genetic Engineering

As we know the HGH is a specific polypeptide (protein) which is made in the pituitary that is made of 191 amino acids with different two internal disulfides bonds. So, in the biochemical processes, organisms which include the simple bacteria, it translates the genetic information which contains the DNA into polypeptides.

The general known steps are DNA, messenger RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) and polypeptide.

  1. Scientists incorporated several DNA splinters that were joined enzymatically to make a DNA segment coding which contains only 12% of the HGH polypeptides.
  2. After that they took the HGH messenger RNA from specific human pituitaries and transfigured in enzymatically to DNA in vitro. Which resulted in DNA segment got to be joined enzymatically with the synthetic DNA segment which formed to complete the gene coding of HGH.
  3. By using enzymes the HGH DNA got to be attached into circular DNA plasmids. When the new constructed plasmids were added into the strain of E.Coli to coniform the NIH guidelines for recombinant DNA work.
  4. Inside the bacteria, the very new inserted gene was announced, and the bacteria formed HGH identical gene to the natural material which is known by several biochemical rules or methods.

[image: Related image]The method which was used to extract the HGH gene from a specific bacteria is called Genetic Engineering it is known as the transfer of DNA from an individual organism to another one by using biotechnology. So, the individual organism who receives the DNA is to be called genetically modified (GM).Any organism is always genetically modified in order it can give them a combinate gene (genotype) which can result them into having desirable physical characteristics (phenotype). Mostly the desirable known characteristics can simply produce large quantities of useful elements. Bacterial cells also can be genetically modified its not stuck on humans only they are genetically modified so they can be able to have the gene that produces human insulin, growth hormones, proteins, etc.. As those bacteria grow or the modified bacteria grow, they produce the HGH resulting by purifying it and supplying it to affected people.

Risks and Side Effects

Although we discussed the benefits of HGH and how it can be used as a treatment for a lot of diseases and syndrome but we also should know that the HGH have risks and side effects too. Most people don’t have the ability to tolerate the HGH treatments which results with few problems such as:

  • Muscle pain.
  • Joint discomfort.
  • Headaches/Migraines.
  • Swelling of hands and feet.

People who suffer or find out one of those symptoms should talk to the doctor so they can be able to change the dose if needed to help reduce the uncomfortable symptoms. (Cronkleton, 2018)

Some people who go to the gym or they’re active in exercising have HGH injections although they think it will allow them to grow more muscles and help them to maintain their weight it can be somehow right but not at the same time because at the same time it can also affect you! Some people have excess of HGH injections without any doctors’ prescription thinking that it will grow their muscles more. So, here is the possibilities people can have from excess of using HGH which can include:

  • Carpal tunnel syndrome.
  • Hands and legs full of fluid retention which cause it to swell (edema).
  • High cholesterol levels which can cause heart stroke.
  • Gain the risk of having a heart disease and diabetes.
  • Feeling numbness and tingling in your skin.
  • The growth of cancerous tumors.
  • Depression and anxiety.
  • Enlarged heart.
  • Growth of hands, feet and facial features (acromegaly).
  • Low blood sugar.
  • Fatigue.
  • Destroy liver.
  • Nerve and muscles pain.
  • Enlarged breasts in men (gynecomastia).

Human Growth Hormone and the UAE

HGH started to increase among men in the UAE which lead the police to arrest anyone who sells it illegally. Men who go to the gym and interested in muscles started to be an issue in the UAE. As we mentioned in the report the side effect the risk of having a high dose of HGH what can cause of side effects, that’s why the UAE police started to arrest anyone who sell the HGH in an illegal way. In 2017 a man was arrested by peddling growth hormone at fitness centers in Dubai they found 315 boxes of Homatropine it is actually a form of human growth hormone. The Dubai police also announced that this man was using social media to promote to those injections without any doctors’ prescription which lead to affect people with high doses of HGH. As we know that HGH should be stored in a place with a pretty good temperature but he didn’t store it the way it should be which caused harm for others. The UAE is always aware of any drug that should be always prescribed by a doctor and to have HGH you should go to the hospital so the doctor can diagnose you to have HGH in the right way without any harm (Ali Al Shouk, 2017).


  1. Ali Al Shouk. (2017, February 2). Man peddling growth hormone at fitness cenrtes arrested in Dubai. Retrieved from Gulf News UAE :
  2. Brian Wu. (2019, january 18). What do growth hormone injections do ? Retrieved from MedicalNewsToday:
  3. Cronkleton, E. (2018, march 9). Side Effects of HGH: What you should know. Retrieved from Healthine:
  4. Dr. David Goeddel. (1979, july 11). Genentech. Retrieved from Genentech:
  5. L. Fryklund,K. Fhölenhag,H. Flodh,B. Holmström,A. Skottner-Lundin,B. Strindberg,A. Wichman. (1982). DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE PRODUCED IN RECOMBINANT BACTERIA AS A THERAPEUTIC AGENT. In K. F.-L. L. Fryklund, From Gene to Protein: Translation Into Biotechnology (p. 522). KabiVitrum AB, S-112 87 Stockholm, Sweden: Elsevier.

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Bacteria And Growth Hormone. (2022, February 17). Edubirdie. Retrieved September 22, 2023, from
“Bacteria And Growth Hormone.” Edubirdie, 17 Feb. 2022,
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