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Basic Perspectives On Motivation: Evaluating Three Perspectives For Understanding Sleep And Sleep Deprivation In Australian Adults

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Abstract

No one knows precisely what the main function of sleep serves, what we do know is that on average individuals sleep for a third of their life, equivalent to 25 years. Sleep plays an essential role in emotional and physical wellness. Some researchers believe that the role of sleep is to conserve energy as it lowers the body’s thermostat. Other researchers emphasise on the belief that sleep works as a restoration function, meaning sleep restores both body and mind to feel refreshed. Burton, Western & Kowalski (2015) support the research which states anything less than 5 minutes to fall asleep at night suggests that you are sleep deprived. Ideally it should take anyone between 10-15 minutes. Sleep deprivation defined by the APA dictionary of psychology explains that it is “the condition of getting insufficient sleep.” With any research study subject, there are many different changing variables that come into question when conducting an evaluation, for example, where the individual’s are sleeping, is it defined as a safe space for the individual or are they living uncomfortably, whether this be physically or mentally. We also have to factor in their overall health, do these individuals suffer from any other illnesses, which may affect their ability to sleep.

Long-term sleep deprivation has shown to reduce the normal functional of the immune system that inevitably makes the body more vulnerable to a variety of diseases ranging from the common cold to the extreme lengths of cancer. No matter your age limited sleep can greatly affect your life from your personal life, including relationships to your work life. Burton, Western & Kowalski (2015) states “Research suggests that sleep deprivation is associated with impaired immune and motor function and psychological problems such as memory and attention deficits.” Over a long period of time sleep deprivation can lead to the inability to deal with ill health, irritability, stress and feeling distracted and unfocused. The rationale for this essay is to be able to understand what motives an abnormal behaviour. Before we do this we must firstly understand what motivates normal behaviour, to then be successful in treating the abnormal behaviour itself. Three perspectives of motivation that will be critically evaluated within this essay are the Evolutionary Perspective, Behaviourist Perspective and the Cognitive Perspective. Conclusion to be made.

Burton, Western & Kowalski (2015) states, “the psychodynamic perspective emphasises the biological basis of motivation. Humans are animals and their motives reflect their animal heritage.” Since Freud developed the theory of mental life and behaviour in the late nineteenth century many psychologist have continued to emphasis his theory on psychodynamics. It relies on the key factors that human’s feelings, thoughts and wishes determine their actions, most of the mental events occur outside of conscious awareness and the likelihood of these mental processes conflicting with one another is high, resulting in compromises between competing motives. The psychodynamic perspective as explained by Sigmund Freud, stresses the role of the unconscious processes, motivation, and early childhood experiences as a way to understand and explain human actions and behaviours. It describes that human behaviours are motivated by drives that build up until they are satisfied (Burton et al., 2015).

Sleep deprivation is defined as a desire to stay awake. A case study method of research would be used in this perspective, to study sleep deprivation (Burton et al., 2015). Self-documenting would be used by participants to measure the hours of sleep. A thematic apperception test (TAT) would be used to test the internal tension state and uncover hidden motives. It is hypothesised that as the internal tension state becomes greater the desire to stay awake also increases, resulting in participants becoming sleep deprived.

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According to the psychodynamic theory, sleep is expressed as the release from the building tension of the need for sleep, as a way of satisfying the drive for a sense of survival. To satisfy sleep behaviour a case study method would be used. The biological variable, hours of sleep would be recorded by the participant of the study using a sleep monitor. To reveal the participant’s unconscious tensions a TAT will be used to measure the internal tensions. It is hypothesised that when the TAT scores measures an increase, a higher number of sleep hours will be documented by the participant on the sleep monitor.

The psychodynamic theory faces many criticisms and shortcomings, the main one being its violation of the falsifiability criterion (see glossary) and for the use of undependable procedures and methods. Strengths of this study is that a connection between internal tensions, thought processes and sleep deprivation is established.

BEHAVIOURIST PERSPECTIVE

Burton, Western & Kowalski (2015) states that the behaviourist perspective emphasises that humans are motivated to repeat behaviours that lead to reinforcement and they avoid behaviours that are associated with punishment.

COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE

Burton, Western & Kowalski (2015) states, “the cognitive perspective asserts that people are motivated to perform behaviours that they value and that they believe they can attain.

Conclusion

Basic Perspectives on Motivation: Evaluating Three Perspectives for Understanding Sleep and Sleep Deprivation in Australian Adults. The rationale for this essay is to be able to understand what motives an abnormal behaviour. Before we do this we must firstly understand what motivates normal behaviour, to then be successful in treating the abnormal behaviour itself.

References

  1. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2009d). National health survey: Summary of results. Retrieved from http://abs.gov.au
  2. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2012a). National health survey: First results, 2011-2012. Retrieved from http://abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/034947E844F 25207 CA257AA30014BDC7?opendocument
  3. Burton, L. J. (2018). An interactive approach to writing essays and research reports in psychology (4th ed.). Milton, Australia: John Wiley & Sons.
  4. Burton, L., Westen, D., & Kowalski, R. (2015). Psychology: 4th Australian and New Zealand edition. Milton, Australia: John Wiley & Sons.
  5. PSY2020. (2020a, Semester 1). Motivation and emotion: Assessment instructions. Toowoomba, Australia: University of Southern Queensland.
  6. PSY2020. (2020b, Semester 1). Motivation and emotion: Course notes. Toowoomba, Australia: University of Southern Queensland.
  7. The Macquarie dictionary. (1981). McMahons Point, Australia: Macquarie Library.
  8. Westen, D. (2002). Psychology: Brain, behaviour, and culture. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
  9. Westen, D., Burton, L., & Kowalski, R. (2006). Psychology: Australian and New Zealand edition. Milton, Australia: John Wiley & Sons.

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Basic Perspectives On Motivation: Evaluating Three Perspectives For Understanding Sleep And Sleep Deprivation In Australian Adults. (2022, Jun 09). Edubirdie. Retrieved August 9, 2022, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/basic-perspectives-on-motivation-evaluating-three-perspectives-for-understanding-sleep-and-sleep-deprivation-in-australian-adults/
“Basic Perspectives On Motivation: Evaluating Three Perspectives For Understanding Sleep And Sleep Deprivation In Australian Adults.” Edubirdie, 09 Jun. 2022, edubirdie.com/examples/basic-perspectives-on-motivation-evaluating-three-perspectives-for-understanding-sleep-and-sleep-deprivation-in-australian-adults/
Basic Perspectives On Motivation: Evaluating Three Perspectives For Understanding Sleep And Sleep Deprivation In Australian Adults. [online]. Available at: <https://edubirdie.com/examples/basic-perspectives-on-motivation-evaluating-three-perspectives-for-understanding-sleep-and-sleep-deprivation-in-australian-adults/> [Accessed 9 Aug. 2022].
Basic Perspectives On Motivation: Evaluating Three Perspectives For Understanding Sleep And Sleep Deprivation In Australian Adults [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Jun 09 [cited 2022 Aug 9]. Available from: https://edubirdie.com/examples/basic-perspectives-on-motivation-evaluating-three-perspectives-for-understanding-sleep-and-sleep-deprivation-in-australian-adults/
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