Biosocial, Cognitive And Psychosocial Factors Of Adolescence Development
Adolescence is a time of major transition that bridges the gap between childhood and adulthood. This developmental stage is marked by significant biosocial, cognitive and psychosocial development that can make the teenage years incredibly that can make the teenage years incredibly challenging.
This presentation categorize these developmental stages as relevant to parents, healthcare providers and teachers. Adolescence is divided into three periods; early (ages 12-14), middle (ages 15-17) and late (ages 18-21). Some teens will develop faster in one task than others. Some go through the stages smoothly while others do so with lots of turmoil. Of course, no one goes through adolescence exactly as the model may suggest.
Nutritional requirements during adolescence include a need for additional calories and about 50% more calcium, iron, and zinc than prior to the growth spurt. During puberty, oil, sweat, and odor glands become more active, producing acne in approximately 90% of boys and 80% of girls and a need for deodorant in most. A daughter’s age of menarche ( first menstrual period) correlates with her mother’s age of menarche.
Because of menstruation, adolescent females also need additional iron in their diets and are more likely to suffer from iron-deficiency anemia. Internal organs grow, including the lungs, which triple in weight, and the heart, which doubles in size and slows in rate. These changes give the adolescent increased physical endurance.
The lymphoid system, including the tonsils and adenoids, decrease in size, making teenagers < susceptible than children to respiratory ailments. Most experts agree that it is less traumatic if one goes through puberty at about the time as one’s closest friends.
Between ages of 10 & 14, the average girl gains about 38 lbs. & grows 9 5/8 inches. Typical boy gains about 42 lbs. and grows 10 inches between ages 12 & 16. Growth spurt proceeds from extremities to trunk, making adolescents temporarily big footed, long-legged, & short-waisted.
As they mature, they become increasingly dissatisfied with their bodies, especially the girls, some develop anorexia or bulemia. Menarche is also related to body weight with most girls having their first menarche about the time they reach 100 lbs. Stocky children tend to experience puberty earlier than those with taller, thinner builds. Average age of puberty onset varies among nations & ethnic groups.
The early adolescent begins to question authority and society standards. The early adolescent begins to form and verbalize his or her own thoughts and views on a variety of topics, usually more related to his or her own life, such as: What parental rules should be changed, personal hygiene, cloths and dressing should be changed. The middle adolescent thinks about and begins to form his or her own code of ethics (for example, What do I think is right?). The middle adolescent thinks about different possibilities and begins to develop own identity (for example, Who am I?).
The middle adolescent thinks about and begins to systematically consider possible future goals (for example, What do I want?). The late adolescent begins to focus thinking on making career decisions. The late adolescent begins to focus thinking on emerging role in adult society.
Has some experience in using more complex thinking processes with expansion in thinking to include more philosophical and futuristic concerns. Invincibility fable – immune to common dangers. Imaginary audience — fantasy about how others will react to their appearance & behavior The late adolescent may debate and develop intolerance of opposing views. Healthy environments and good nutrition are important for brain growth and development at this stage of development.
The early adolescent begins to demonstrate use of formal logical operations in schoolwork. The early adolescent begins to question authority and society standards. The early adolescent begins to form and verbalize his or her own thoughts and views on a variety of topics, usually more related to his or her own life, such as: Which sports are better to play, Which groups are better to be included in, What personal appearances are desirable or attractive.
The middle adolescent often questions and analyzes more extensively. The middle adolescent thinks about and begins to make his or her own plans. The middle adolescent begins to think long-term. The middle adolescent’s use of systematic thinking begins to influence relationships with others. The late adolescent has increased thoughts about more global concepts such as justice, history, politics, and patriotism.
Early adolescents begin to pull away from their parents and show less interest in family activities. Early adolescents are often moody, alternating between being pleasant and nasty toward their families. Early adolescents are mainly antagonistic towards the most ‘controlling“ parents. The parent-adolescent interaction is more on an adult-adult level. At middle adolescents, taking care of issues such as acne or unwanted hair (e.g., eyebrows) becomes paramount. Weightlifting and dieting become important as well. Middle adolescents may share intense personal relationships with the group.
Being ‘normal’ is a huge concern to early adolescents and leads to constant comparisons to others. The limited ability to think abstractly makes it hard for a teen to see another’s point of view and also makes compromise difficult. Lack of abstract thinking also encourages feelings of invulnerability. The values and morals of the early adolescent are those of the parents. As they attempt to pull away from the family and move closer to peers, teens’ values mirror those of their friends.
Usually by the end of adolescence, the teens’ morals and values come back in line with those of their family.
Gender is more than biological but it comes a lot from the socialization of adolescents are expected to fulfill. Though many exciting changes occur during this period, teens also face several risk factors, such as depression, suicide, and drugs. Teens experience growth in their relationships, not only with their parents and peers but also with romantic partners. Healthcare providers/ physician should take into account this move toward independence and help parents appropriately give the teen responsibility for medical care.
Failing to recognize this move towards independence makes the physician prone to appearing as an ‘agent of the parent’ and may make it more difficult to gain the confidence of the teen.
Most early adolescents are not sure what to think of the changes in their body and accompanying hygienic responsibilities. Body odor, axillary hair, acne and menstrual cramps are not exactly thrilling. With the gain in confidence comes increased interest in the opposite sex as a result of hormonal changes production. This is often the onset of dating and the development of skills and behaviors related to sexual relationships. By late adolescence, teens are comfortable with the changes in their body. Pelvic exams or hernia checks are not as stressful.
Many adolescents are now ready to deal with issues such as birth control. Sexual relationships become less exploring and exploitative and more loving and sharing. A useful strategy for providers is to ask about the risk behaviors of the teen’s friends, since teens are often more comfortable sharing information about friends than about themselves. This enables the physician to explore the adolescent’s feelings and knowledge of risk behaviors. Teens believe that nothing bad will happen to them no matter what. They trust that they can have sex, use drugs, smoke, or drive recklessly without consequence.
Usually, the teen is mainly antagonistic towards the most ‘controlling’ teachers, peers and authorities. Early adolescents crave privacy and desire to control their personal information as they carve out a life separate from that of their parents. Adolescents become aware of their physical development and the fact that it portends adulthood.
Middle adolescents are more at ease with the changes and want to make the most of their ‘new’ body. Clothing, jewelry and makeup become big with this group. Peers become extremely important during adolescence as they pull away from their family and relates more outside with their peers.
Early adolescents are not strong enough to stand on their own and they turn to their peers for guidance and support. By mid-adolescence, the peer group exerts a huge influence over the teen. By late adolescence, peer groups do not demand the same level of conformity. It is all right to attend a party and not drink when others are drinking. Individuality is more acceptable. Identity development includes the emergence of abstract reasoning along with personal values and morals.
Introduction The roots of attachment theory were first established in the 1930s and 1940s when a number of clinicians observed the negative effects of maternal separations early in life. The theory of attachment was first proposed by John Bowlby who described it as a ‘lasting psychological connectedness between human beings in 1988. Attachment theory is the joint work of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Attachment refers to the special bond and the lasting relationships that young children form with one...
PHYSICAL (BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES) Rena has a height of 5’5” while Ashley has a height of 5’6”. They are 17 years old and on their 12 grade that is currently studying in Pangsinan National High School. Rena weighs about 53 klgs while Ashley weighs between 65-70 klgs. Rena’s sport is taekwando and wushusanda while Ahley’s sport is volleyball. They both do exercise and have a diet. Children who play sports are more likely to be physically fit, have a healthy weight...
In today’s world, children are born and raised in the digital world wherein both the home environment and other surrounding environments they are exposed to and immersed into a life consumed by an array of digital devices and concepts (Akyar and Sapsaglam, 2019). As the use of digital technologies and devices are exceedingly more common and are seen as an essential need in everyday life in homes and other environments (Arrnott, 2013), it is crucial to, therefore, consider and explore...
Synthetic Opioids Synthetic opioids exist as fentanyl-adulterated or fentanyl substituted heroin (FASH). Synthetic opioids are sold as heroin put into powdered form, counterfeit opioids, or benzodiazepine pills. The ingredient fentanyl is a chemical of analogs which comes in several morphine-equivalent in strengths. The US Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) has found that the primary supplier of illicitly produced fentanyl’s come from China. “Fentanyls sourced from China take several routes on their way into the US including internet purchases, routing through Canada...
Did you know that archery is the second oldest sport in the world? This fact proves that sport activities have become a part of human life since the start of the progress of the world. Nowadays, we can watch there are many people who have ventured into the sport as their choice to make sure that as the platform to build their career. For example, professional swimmer, professional football player, members of professional weightlifting sports and many other examples that...
‘A strong body makes the mind strong – Thomas Jefferson’. This is even truer when it comes to young teens, which mean sports keep young bodies strong and they also help growing minds. Moreover, children who played sports proved to be more active and healthier than those who did not participate in sport. Doing sports not only keep them healthy, but it also helps to relieve stress and improve their social skills. Children playing sports regularly is good because it...
I ran my hands through my hair brushing it back as I reached to open the door to my dorm. I quickly rushed myself inside and shut the door behind me. “The bloody cold,” I muttered to myself, walking into the room. “Where the hell is everybody? It’s like a goddamn morgue out here.” I glanced over to where Caulfield was arched back in my chair, he didn’t bother to answer or even look. The kid loathed me, I could...
PHYSICAL (BIOLOGICAL) PROCESSES Lito is an eighteen-year-old male. He claims he plays electronic sports for four to five hours a day. Meanwhile, he plays physical sports for two to three hours a day. Lats is an eighteen-year-old male. He claims he plays electronic sports for five hours in a day. Meanwhile, he plays physical sports for thirty minutes in a day. Both Lito and Lats are in their adolescence stage on Santrock’s developmental stages. Three main physical changes come with...
Introduction Body image dissatisfaction continues to be a major concern in America’s youth, especially in girls. Statistics show that 40-70% of girls are unsatisfied with at least two parts of their body by the time that they enter middle school1. More than 50% of teenage girls and 30% of teenage boys practice unhealthy dieting behaviors to control their weight1. Satisfaction with appearance also appears to decrease with age1,2. Previous research shows that girls are more likely than boys to be...
01 / 09
Fair Use Policy
EduBirdie considers academic integrity to be the essential part of the learning process and does not support any violation of the academic standards. Should you have any questions regarding our Fair Use Policy or become aware of any violations, please do not hesitate to contact us via email@example.com.
We are here 24/7 to write your paper in as fast as 3 hours.