Biotechnology In Agriculture: Role and Importance
TWO simple science terms comprise the word biotechnology which is biology and technology that is the technology by the employment of biological resources makes our life comfortable and convenient. (1) There are 4 branches of biotechnology; 1, red biotechnology 2, white biotechnology, 3, blue biotechnology and 4, green biotechnology.
Red biotechnology; red biotechnology paved the way in medical sciences through the use of antibiotics to overcome bacterial infections of viruses, it has shown significant progress in the control of human diseases (AIDS /anti-HIVS) by using pharmaceuticals. Such as Azidothymidine (AZT), antimalarial compounds, and novel vaccines which proved to be a life saver for millions of people.
Green biotechnology; Biolistic genetic modifications and agrobacterium have dramatically increased the overall production of food by using them in the development of food having high nutritional value such as Golden rice, crops that can grow in stressful conditions like drought and cold situations , and crops that are pathogen resistance; expressing toxin genes to increase the growth range of crops
White biotechnology; The expanding area of white biotechnology delivered bioplastics enzyme detergents (which works at low temperature) and a number of feedstock materials for industrial processes modified starch which makes our everyday life easy and without them, our life would be far more complex.(2)
Blue biotechnology; The production of products and processes through the application of biotechnology, bioinformatics molecular and cell biology from Marine organisms. (3)
The dynamic macromolecules which perform the important function of life are named as PROTEIN (coming from a GREEK word ;PROTEIOS =THE FIRST RANK) by a scientist named BERZELIUS in 1838( 4).The word PROTEOMICS was coined in 1997 is the study of total expressed protein content by a cell or an organism at a given period or describes the changes of all protein in a cell-expressed by GENOME[5, 6 ]The Human Genome comprised of 25000 genes while advancement in proteomics technology has started to elucidate the complexity and diversity of the human proteome, estimated it contains approximately over one million proteins (7). For the visualization quantification and identification of these proteins the word proteomics encapsulates several Technologies (8). These techniques include two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and imaging techniques and the use bioinformatics approach for the identification , characterization and quantification of proteins(6) Studies show that this approach of proteomics is used for multiple studies such as protein-protein interaction, identification and localization of post-translation modification, mapping of entire protein content and for analyzing the expression of two or more proteins.
How proteomics links to medical biotechnology with all of these technologies and techniques proteomics has become a hot topic in modern life sciences and its application in clinic Medical Research has become important to for the use of following conditions such as the discovery of new disease biomarker identification of disease-related proteins and development of new drug targets(10)
Biomarker a quantitative measuring tool for diagnosis of pathological/physiological disease and used for the indication of the progression of the disease and giving the idea about treatment response . Studies show that there are e types of biomarkers present 1) Diagnostic biomarker 2) predictive biomarker (define the progression of the disease) 3) metabolism biomarker (for defining the dose according to metabolism 4) outcome biomarker (telling the reoccurrence of disease/forecasting the response)
IBD (INTESTINAL BOWEL DISEASE is usually characterized by chronic gastrointestinal inflammation and having 2 major subtypes namely Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Due to their conjoining pathological and clinical conditions sometimes it is difficult to discriminate between these two subtypes condition. (13) .By investigating the evolving nature of protein expression, post translation modifications, distribution of proteins in the cellular and subcellular compartments and their interactions with other proteins and molecules, provides a wide approach for effectual characterization of IBD pathogenesis (14). Therefore proteomics gives a potential approach for cheap and non-invasive alternatives to endoscopy in IBD (15). For biomarker discovery proteomic approach involves analyzing protein samples between cases (patients) and control (healthy persons) and ultimately identifying the difference of protein expression in the samples of IBD patients and healthy controls (16). Key factor for the early and effective diagnosis and detection protein biomarker doing a chief task , moreover, it helps the clinicians to improve the treatment of individual patients. (17)
As a part of the endosomal pathway cellular material containing small vesicles is formed which is surrounded by a lipid bilayer and trapped in the membrane.(18)
Exosomes liberate into the urine which flows from the kidney to the ureter to the bladder and lastly urethra with a process of filtration and absorption. Urinary exosomes have been suggested to offer new and alternative opportunities for the identification of new biomarker (19)
Urine proteome holds a number of abundant protein such as Tamm Horsfall protein, these abundant proteins intricate the detection of pathophysiological significance protein which is present in low quantity. With the help of exosomes isolation it minimizes high abundant proteins and maximizes the sub proteome which cover both membrane and cytosolic proteins trapped in the core of exosomes in urine.
Proteomic analysis of urinary exosomes provides information to identify those protein which are present in epithelial membrane of kidney including proximal tubule, the glomerular podocytes, and loop of Henle, collecting duct, the distal convoluted tubule and the transitional epithelium of urinary bladder. Urinary exomes represent virtually all epithelial cell type which are facing the urinary space.
At least 19 proteins that are responsible for kidney related disease or blood pressure regulation have identified by Urinary exosomes analysis by a proteomic approach. (20 )
Disease-associated proteins may include Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3(marker in acute renal failure patients) (21 ), Polycystin 1 which is a product of gene autosomal dominant Polycystic kidney disease. (22 ), Mutated thiazide sensitive NaCl cotransporter Diagnostic tool of sub classify Gitelman’s syndrome (23 ). Urinary proteomics also predict diabetic neuropathy condition (24 ),can be used for the early detection of acute renal failure ( 25,26) and acute rejection of allograft (27)
MS-based proteomic analysis of urinary exomes emerged as a prominent tool in disease biomarker Discovery ( 28).
The inability of a couple after 12 months of regular unprotected sexual commerce to conceive naturally is called infertility. The most important factor responsible for male infertility is abnormality of sperms and in their functions (29).
The identification of 100 to 1000 sperm proteins by large-scale studies of proteomics serve as an important tool which will ultimately result in the discovery of new maker proteins that may have to understand the state of contraception fertility and beyond (30).Proteomics can be used for finding the putative protein target for the development of male contraceptives .By using the proteomic approach these proteins can you find out with the help of the proteomic analysis by liquid chromatography followed by the tandem Mass Spectrometry of human sperm which ultimately provides the result of human sperm proteins(31 ). Studies on sperm proteome have revealed the significance of how spermatozoa’s post translation modifications include physiological changes effects the fertilization ability of sperm. By comparison of proteomics data and transcriptome give exact mechanism of relevant protein for fertility, infertility or contraception.(30) Spermatozoa are unique cells and consists comparatively huge amount of membrane protein, adult spermatozoa are passive and do not perform cellular process such as transcription, translation and protein synthesis (32 )therefore made them very acceptable for proteomics analysis(33). Study of sperm proteomics suggested that 4,4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid inhibits VDAC2 and VDAC3 proteins responsible for vital function of sperm such as growth and activity of sperm , motion of sperm , capacitation, development of embryo, and tyrosine phosphorylation reactions(34) Recent studies show that inhibition of nutlin-3a with ubiquinol-cytochrome-c reductase core protein 2 in spermatozoa having an adverse effect in male fertility(35 ).
A complementary strategy to the genomic based approach in proteomics which when combined with vaccinomics and immunomics provided and effective information on pathogen-host cell interaction and also helpful for the identification and elaborative characterization of new antigens which can be served as powerful candidate for vaccine development.(36)Over the previous year’s studies shows that the exposure of structure proteomics in vaccinology recognized as a major tool for vaccine biomarker candidate discovery and for the growth and development of existing products along with the antigen designs.(37)
The major cause of mortality and global mortality are infectious disease. Pathogenic bacteria is responsible for half of that burden. For this purpose, vaccines are used as a preservative measure for infectious diseases.(38)
According to recent studies, proteomics approaches utilized 2D liquid chromatography followed by MS analysis for protein analysis.(39)With the addition of these approaches proteomics combined with serological analysis for the development of new technique which is termed as serological proteome analysis. This method is used as a key for the identification of immunogens (in Vivo) fit for vaccine candidates. Using this approach 74 cell wall associated protein of S. pyrogens were identified out of 36 found to be novel. 33 were found to be immunoreactive and 23 were appeared to be surface-exposed protein when this protein were analyzed with human antisera.(40)
Leading public health burden caused by gonorrhea with an approximately 78 million new cases reported annually all around the world (41). To identify potential Antigen for the gonococcal vaccine, a comprehensive proteomics platform applied which includes isobaric tagging combined with two-dimensional liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry for absolute protein quantification (42). Five antigens for vaccine candidates that universally expressed under different growth conditions consists two uncharacterized protein NGO2139 and NGO2054 and homolog of BamA(NGO1801), TamA(NGO1956), LptD(NGO1715) and.( 43) These vaccine candidates seem to be highly conserved among N. Gonorrhea strains.(42)
For the analysis, purification, characterization, quantification of a large number of proteins in all cell types’ proteomics approaches and techniques gained a successful popularity. The relationship between proteomics and medical biotechnology responsible for making our lives easier and safer. Proteomics analysis in medical biotechnology is used for the discovery of biomarker (to improve treatment and healthcare, for early detection of diseases and trace their prognosis and reoccurrence), helping in the vaccine development for the prevention of deadly infectious disease and identification of disease associated protein. Furthermore proteomics also helpful for understanding the biological pathways by providing information that how protein plays a function in a cellular pathway, how protein interacts with other proteins and other molecules, and how proteome is associated with the genome.
Abstract In this inscription, some material on regulation and responsibility in biotechnology industries has been gathered as a reflection on how the agreement been regulated. Among the element than been discussed are the preliminary of the regulation that explain the purpose of the regulation in biotechnology industry which to protect human health, human rights and dignity and also environment. One from many concerns of countries with variety of biodiversity is the conservation of species in the natural habitat and environment....
To explain why biodesign is the now for designers and is now even more relevant, and why designers should all have at least an awareness of it. It is partly due to the reason that by some biodesign being is being viewed as an industrial revolution or revolutionizer and therefore designers can be seen to be in an exceptional and possibly an enviable position. As Bio designing is gaining greater importance for everyone now and into the future as with...
Biotechnology can be defined as the exploitation of living systems and biological processes to develop tools for technological use. Applications may be used in areas such as industry (e.g. food, energy), medicine, environmental sciences, and computational design. The term ‘biotechnology’ was introduced in 1919 by a Hungarian scientist, Karl Ereky, to refer in general to processes where raw materials were converted into useful products, such as on industrial farms. Most biotechnological developments in early times were based on products available...
The purpose of my essay is to address the importance of deepening our understanding within genetic engineering and application of biotechnology, in particular the application of CRISPR and how it can be used to treat genetic disease. This is done through the conjunction of a secondary review article about the ethical and social issues regarding genetic engineering and a primary research article detailing an example within the secondary article in more depth. A secondary article provides us with a wide...
Abstract Recent upswing and advances in science and technology has exposed a great impact on all areas of human life. One of the most significant fields of science and technology is Biotechnology. The progression in biotechnology and the trends of biotechnology brought forward thinking and solutions for many of the complications that the human race are and will be facing, including but not limited to the problem of nourishing a large population but however, at the same time, it poses...
Introduction Biotechnology involves the use of living organisms. It is mainly used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. It is used all around the world, but mainly by the rich countries, like the United States, Spain, France and more. In medicine, biotechnology has many functions. From DNA sequencing, to healthcare biotechnology, to cell replacements. The main focus of this report is cloning. Cloning is the act of duplicating an organism through the use of biotechnology. Cloned subjects are known as...
INTRODUCTION Agrobacterium is a gram negative soil bacterial of the family Rhizobiaceae. It is know for its disease causing in dicot plant like crown gall tumor and bearded root. There are many species of agrobacterium known but some so them are studied for feature that are manipulated to be used in biotechnology. They are basically used in transfer of genetic information in plant. There are various species for example A tumefaciens , A.rhizogen, A.vitis. The virulent strain of agrobacterium carry...
In a bid to aid globalisation, the Australian Government established liberal trade policy agreements with low wage economies. However, according to a manufacturing report released in 2018 by the Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, it suggests liberal trade policies are hampering the growth of Australia’s manufacturing industry instead of fueling economic growth. Australia’s manufacturing industry contributes 6% to the Australian GDP, however the utilisation of manufacturing has declined considerably over recent years. The Australian manufacturing industry exports $96.1 billion...
Biotechnology; an area that has evolved drastically over time involves the use of biological systems to create a variety of products. This has enabled the ability to precisely manipulate genomes as seen in applications of artificial insemination, gene cloning, recombinant DNA technology to develop transgenic species etc. However, despite serving as a tool to increase the quality of life and overcome previous barriers in agriculture and medicine, the rapid evolution of biotechnology can give rise to a variety of negative...
01 / 09
Fair Use Policy
EduBirdie considers academic integrity to be the essential part of the learning process and does not support any violation of the academic standards. Should you have any questions regarding our Fair Use Policy or become aware of any violations, please do not hesitate to contact us via email@example.com.
We are here 24/7 to write your paper in as fast as 3 hours.