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Brief History about Taiwan: Analytical Essay on Ming Dynasty’s Famous Explorer Zheng He

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A brief history about Taiwan

During the Yuan dynasty (1206–1368), when the Mongols ruled China, the P’eng-hu (Penghu) Islands within the Taiwan Strait were brought under China’s control. In 1430 the Ming dynasty’s famous explorer Zheng He (Cheng Ho) landed on Taiwan and obtained from the aboriginal people herbal medicines that were said to possess “miracle powers.”

Meanwhile, perhaps as early as the 7th century, Chinese fishermen visited the P’eng-hu Islands, and doubtless, some farmers settled there and on Taiwan itself. In any event, there have been Chinese settlements on the island of Taiwan before the 12th century. Chinese and Japanese pirates also frequently used the island as a base of operations, and a few Japanese settlements were also established there.

The island of Taiwan, additionally normally known as Formosa, was mostly under pioneer rule by the Dutch Republic from 1624 to 1662. With regards to the Age of Discovery, the Dutch East India Company set up its essence on Formosa to exchange with the Chinese (Ming Empire) and Japanese, and furthermore to prohibit Portuguese and Spanish exchange and pioneer exercises in East Asia. The time of Dutch guidelines saw financial advancement in Taiwan, including both enormous scale chasing of deer and the development of rice and sugar by imported Han work from the Ming Empire. The Dutch additionally endeavoured to change over the native occupants to Christianity, and smother parts of conventional culture that they found obnoxious, for example, head chasing, constrained premature birth and open bareness.

In 1642, Dutch forces expelled the Spanish, put down a rebellion by Chinese inhabitants, and, with the assistance of aboriginal peoples, established control over the whole island. As a result, Taiwan became a Dutch colony, governed by the Dutch archipelago Company. The company dug wells, conducted land surveys, and created the idea for expanded commerce, including trade with China and other places in East Asia. It introduced new farm implements and also the use of oxen to till the fields. additionally, its representatives developed a written communication for the aboriginal peoples and converted many to Christianity. Japanese settlers on the island left shortly subsequently.

Zheng Chenggong (Cheng Ch’eng-Kung), born in Japan to a Japanese mother, refused to follow after his father and instead launched a protracted campaign of resistance against the Manchu from bases along the Fujian (Fukien) coast of China. By 1661, however, Zheng had failed in his effort, and he turned his attention to Taiwan. He took an outsized number of Chinese to Taiwan, many of whom had enlisted in his army. Later that year Zheng (whom the Dutch called Koxinga) launched an attack on the Dutch stronghold of Zeelandia (near present-day T’ai-nan) and laid siege thereto. The Dutch surrendered in early 1662 and were evacuated, thus ending the Dutch presence in Taiwan. This was the primary instance of the “liberation” of a Western colony.

Zheng established a Ming-style government on the island and promoted Chinese culture. Chinese bureaucratic rule, however, failed to work well there, because it was superimposed on a structure that was basically feudal. Zheng failed to establish ties with Manchu-ruled China. He did, however, encourage Chinese immigration to Taiwan, and he promoted commerce and foreign trade. Zheng had tried to ascertain ties with the Chinese communities within the Philippines to create support for his continued efforts to revive Ming decree China, but he died suddenly in June 1662 before he could act further on any of his plans.

After his death, his son Zheng Jing (Cheng Ching), operating from an influence base in Fujian province, vied along with his uncle in Taiwan for succession. Zheng won, and, like his father and grandfather, he fought the Manchu. He too failed, however, and retreated to Taiwan. His early death was followed by court intrigue in Taiwan, which gave the Manchu in China a chance to invade and take the island, which they did in 1683.

For consequent two centuries, Taiwan was governed as a part of Fujian province. The Qing government sent officials to rule Taiwan who failed to regard their assignments highly. They considered Taiwan beyond the pale of Chinese civilization. the amount of Chinese governance was thus characterized by frequent rebellions followed by severe punishments allotted by the govt to stay in order.

The inhabitants of Taiwan weren’t proud of rule by the Chinese, whose ruthlessness was partly thanks to the very fact that the Qing government was dominated by the “foreign” Manchu, not the Han Chinese, and also the Manchu feared the “Chinese-ness” of Taiwan. Meanwhile, China was experiencing increasing encroachments from Western powers, and, after the primary Opium War (1839–42)—during which British forces defeated the Chinese—the Qing government came to ascertain Taiwan as strategically important. After the war, the region’s commerce with the West increased rapidly, which gave rise to foreign designs on Taiwan—including those of Japan, especially after it acquired the Ryukyu Islands, just north of Taiwan, in 1879, and, later, those of the us.

After French forces blockaded Taiwan’s ports during the Sino-French War (1883–85) in geographical areas, China focused even more attention on Taiwan. In 1885 the Qing government directed Liu Mingchuan (Liu Ming-ch’uan), the governor of Fujian, to focus his attention on Taiwan, and two years later Taiwan was elevated to the status of a province. Liu undertook reform in Taiwan, built the island’s first railroad, and improved roads and harbours. Taiwan prospered, which engendered friendly feelings toward China.

Kingdom of Tungning (1662–1683)

The Kingdom of Tungning or Kingdom of Formosa was an administration that governed a piece of southwestern Formosa (Taiwan) somewhere in the range of 1661 and 1683. It was established by Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong) as a feature of the supporter development to re-establish the Ming tradition in China after it was toppled by the Manchu-drove Qing administration. Koxinga planned to recover the Chinese terrain from the Qing, utilizing the island as a base of tasks. Until its addition by the Qing Dynasty in 1683, the Kingdom was managed by Koxinga’s beneficiaries, the House of Koxinga.

Development under the rule

The promptest issue Koxinga looked after the fruitful intrusion of Taiwan was an extreme deficiency of nourishment. It is assessed that before Koxinga’s intrusion the number of inhabitants in Taiwan was no more prominent than 100,000 individuals, yet the underlying Zheng armed force with family and retainers that settled in Taiwan is evaluated to be 30,000 at minimum. To address the nourishment lack, Koxinga established a tuition approach in which fighters served the double job of rancher when not doled out dynamic obligation in a watchman legion. No exertion was saved to guarantee the fruitful execution of this strategy to form Taiwan into an independent island, and a progression of land and tax collection approaches were built up to empower the extension and development of prolific grounds for expanded nourishment generation capabilities. Lands held by the Dutch were promptly recovered and proprietorship appropriated among Koxinga’s believed staff and family members to be leased to worker ranchers, while appropriately creating different farmlands in the south and the asserting, clearing, developing and of Aborigine terrains toward the east was likewise forcefully pursued. To additionally support venture into new farmlands, an arrangement of changing tax assessment was actualized wherein ripe land recently asserted for the Zheng system would be burdened at a much lower rate than those recovered from the Dutch, considered ‘official land’.

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Spanish Formosa (1626–1642)

Spanish Formosa was a little state of the Spanish Empire set up in the northern tip of the island referred to by Europeans at the time as Formosa (presently Taiwan) from 1626 to 1642. It was vanquished by the Dutch Republic during the Eighty Years’ War. As a Spanish province, it was intended to ensure the territorial exchange with the Philippines from impedance by the Dutch base in the south of the island. The settlement was brief because of the reluctance of Spanish provincial experts in Manila to submit more men and materiel to its protection.

Following seventeen years, the last stronghold of the Spanish was blockaded by Dutch powers and in the long run fell, giving the Dutch command over a significant part of the island.

Dutch Formosa (1624–1662)

The island of Taiwan, additionally normally known as Formosa, was mostly under pioneer rule by the Dutch Republic from 1624 to 1662. With regards to the Age of Discovery, the Dutch East India Company set up its essence on Formosa to exchange with the Chinese (Ming Empire) and Japanese, and furthermore to prohibit Portuguese and Spanish exchange and pioneer exercises in East Asia. The time of Dutch guidelines saw financial advancement in Taiwan, including both enormous scale chasing of deer and the development of rice and sugar by imported Han work from the Ming Empire. The Dutch additionally endeavoured to change over the native occupants to Christianity, and smother parts of conventional culture that they found obnoxious, for example, head chasing, constrained premature birth and open bareness.

The Taoyuan manufacturing plant was turn into the second-most productive industrial facility in the entire of the Dutch East Indies despite the fact that it took 22 years for the province to initially restore a profit. Benefitting from triangular exchange between themselves, the Chinese and the Japanese, in addition to abusing the normal assets of Formosa, the Dutch had the option to transform the malarial sub-tropical narrows into a worthwhile resource. A money economy was presented and the period additionally observed the primary genuine endeavours in the island’s history to create it economically.

Agriculture

The Dutch likewise utilized Chinese to cultivate sugarcane and rice for send out; a portion of this rice and sugar was sent out similarly as the business sectors of Persia. Attempts to convince native tribesmen to quit any pretence of chasing and receive a stationary cultivating way of life were ineffective in light of the fact that ‘for them, cultivating had two significant disadvantages: first, as indicated by the conventional sexual division of work, it was ladies’ work; second, it was work escalated drudgery.’

The Dutch in this way imported work from China, and the period was the first to see mass Chinese movement to the island, with one analyst assessing that 50–60,000 Chinese settled in Taiwan during the 37 years of Dutch rule. These pioneers were urged with free transportation to the island, regularly on Dutch ships, and instruments, bulls and seeds to begin farming. Consequently, the Dutch took a tenth of rural creation as a duty.

Trade

The first goal of setting up Fort Zeelandia in southern Formosa was to give a base to exchanging with China and Japan. Merchandise exchanged included silks from China and silver from Japan, among numerous other things. The intense deer skins were exceptionally prized by the Japanese, who utilized them to make samurai reinforcement. Different pieces of the deer were offered to Chinese brokers for meat and restorative use. The Dutch paid natives for the deer brought to them and attempted to deal with the deer stocks to stay aware of interest. In spite of the fact that sugar stick was a local harvest of Taiwan, the indigenous individuals had always been unable to make sugar granules from the crude sugar. Chinese migrants brought and acquaint the procedure with transform the crude sugar stick into sugar granules. Sugar turned into the most significant fare thing as the fundamental reason for delivering sugar was to trade it to other countries. The sugar created in Taiwan made far higher benefits than the sugar delivered in Java. About 300,000 catties of sugar, which was 33% of the all-out generation, were carried to Persia in 1645. In 1658, Taiwan created 1,730,000 catties of sugar and 800,000 catties of them were transported to Persia and 600,000 catties to Japan. The rest was sent out to Batavia. Tea was likewise a significant fare thing. Another of Taiwan’s significant fare things was sulphur gathered from close Keelung and Tamsui. Taiwan, particularly Taoyuan, turned into a significant transhipment place for East Asian exchange networks. The items from Japan, Fukien, Vietnam, Thailand, and Indonesia were sent to Taiwan and afterwards traded to different nations as the business sectors demanded. The Dutch sent out spices, pepper, lead, tin, hemp, cotton, opium and kapok from Southeast Asia through Batavia to China by the way of Taiwan and carried silk, porcelain, gold, and herbs from China to Japan and Europe by means of Taiwan.

Taxation

The Dutch quickly imposed an expense on all the import and fare duties. The Dutch probably made a ton of benefit from the fare obligations got by Chinese and Japanese traders.

Another type of tax assessment was the survey charge which the Dutch demanded on each individual who was not Dutch or more than six years of age.

The Dutch forced a tax on chasing also. They offered a permit to burrow a pit-snare for 15 reals every month and a permit for trapping was sold for one real. During the chasing season between October 1638 and March 1639, the aggregate sum of the chase charge was 1,998.5 reals.

Qing rule (1683–1895)

Taiwan flourished during a sugar boom in the mid-eighteenth century, yet thereafter its sugar industry made some troublesome memories staying aware of advances in remote creation. Until the Japanese occupation in 1895, Taiwan’s sugar ranches and sugar factories stayed little scale tasks. The sugar business was focused in the south of the island and all through the nineteenth century, the southern populace indicated little development and may have declined.

As the Chinese populace moved into the lower regions of the northern mountains in the mid-nineteenth century, they started developing tea, which added toward the north’s monetary terms and turned into the island’s driving fare during the last quarter of the nineteenth century. The tea business’ best item during that time.

During the last years of the Qing dynasty’s rule in Taiwan, Taiwan was made a full province of China and some attempts were made to modernize the island by carrying out a land survey and building infrastructure. Taiwan’s first railroad was constructed linking several cities in the north.

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Brief History about Taiwan: Analytical Essay on Ming Dynasty’s Famous Explorer Zheng He. (2022, September 27). Edubirdie. Retrieved January 31, 2023, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/brief-history-about-taiwan-analytical-essay-on-ming-dynastys-famous-explorer-zheng-he/
“Brief History about Taiwan: Analytical Essay on Ming Dynasty’s Famous Explorer Zheng He.” Edubirdie, 27 Sept. 2022, edubirdie.com/examples/brief-history-about-taiwan-analytical-essay-on-ming-dynastys-famous-explorer-zheng-he/
Brief History about Taiwan: Analytical Essay on Ming Dynasty’s Famous Explorer Zheng He. [online]. Available at: <https://edubirdie.com/examples/brief-history-about-taiwan-analytical-essay-on-ming-dynastys-famous-explorer-zheng-he/> [Accessed 31 Jan. 2023].
Brief History about Taiwan: Analytical Essay on Ming Dynasty’s Famous Explorer Zheng He [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Sept 27 [cited 2023 Jan 31]. Available from: https://edubirdie.com/examples/brief-history-about-taiwan-analytical-essay-on-ming-dynastys-famous-explorer-zheng-he/
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