The term genetically modified (GM), as it is commonly used, refers to the transfer of genes between organisms using a series of laboratory techniques for cloning genes, splicing DNA segments together, and inserting genes into cells. Collectively, these techniques are known as recombinant DNA technology. Other terms used for GM plants or foods derived from them are genetically modified organism (GMO), genetically engineered (GE), biopesticide, herbicide, or antibiotic resistance to other organisms would not only put humans at risk, but it would also cause ecological imbalances, allowing previously innocuous plants to grow uncontrolled, thus promoting the spread of disease among both plants and animals. Although the possibility of horizontal gene transfer between GMOs and other organisms cannot be denied, in reality, this risk is considered to be quite low. Horizontal gene transfer occurs naturally at a very low rate and, in most cases, cannot be simulated in an optimized laboratory environment without active modification of the target genome to increase susceptibility.
In contrast, the alarming consequences of vertical gene transfer between GMOs and their wild-type counterparts have been highlighted by studying transgenic fish released into wild populations of the same species. The enhanced mating advantages of the genetically modified fish led to a reduction in the viability of their offspring. Thus, when a new transgene is introduced into a wild fish population, it propagates and may eventually threaten the viability of both the wild-type and the genetically modified organisms.
GM is a technology that involves inserting DNA into the genome of an organism. To produce a GM plant, new DNA is transferred into plant cells. Usually, the cells are then grown in tissue culture where they develop into plants. The seeds produced by these plants will inherit the new DNA.
The characteristics of all living organisms are determined by their genetic makeup and its interaction with the environment. The genetic makeup of an organism is its genome, which in all plants and animals is made of DNA. The genome contains genes, regions of DNA that usually carry the instructions for making proteins. It is these proteins that give the plant its characteristics. For example, the colour of flowers is determined by genes that carry the instructions for making proteins involved in producing the pigments that colour petals.
Genetic modification of plants involves adding a specific stretch of DNA into the plant’s genome, giving it new or different characteristics.
Environmental sustainability is responsibly interacting with the planet to maintain natural resources and avoid jeopardizing the ability for future generations to meet their needs. A walk on the beach or a hike in the woods reminds us that our forests, coral reefs, and even our deserts act as examples of sustainable systems.
Environmental sustainability is the capacity to improve the quality of human life while living within the carrying capacity of the earth’s supporting ecosystems. Environmental sustainability is about stabilizing the currently disruptive relationship between earth’s two most complex systems: human culture and the living world. Many also wonder if it’s possible to utilize business as the catalysing force behind this change because financial success can be tied to ecological and societal success, and vice versa. Individuals have a role to play, but so do institutions that contribute to the cause on a larger scale.
The ways in which we can all live more sustainably can take many forms, such as:
- Reorganizing living conditions in the form of eco-villages, eco-municipalities, and sustainable cities
- Reappraising economic sectors (permaculture, green building, sustainable agriculture) or work practices, such as sustainable architecture
- Developing new technologies (green technologies, renewable energy, etc.)
- Making adjustments in individual lifestyles that conserve natural resources
Concepts and application:
The principles /concerns involved in environmental ethics:
It suggests that human beings are the most important beings. All other living beings are but accessories that would assist in their survival. Now, there are two further divisions of anthropocentrism. They are weak anthropocentrism and strong anthropocentrism.
While weak anthropocentrism believes that human beings are the centre because it is only through their perspective that environmental situations can be interpreted.
Strong anthropocentrism, however, believes that human beings are at the centre because they rightfully deserve to be there.
As opposed to anthropocentrism, non-anthropocentrism, this principle gives value to every object, every animal in nature. It is a principle that believes in everything that sustains itself in nature.
Psychocentrism is the principle that believes that human beings hold more value in the environment since their mental capacities are better developed and far more complex than any other element in the environment.
It is a term that holds not only an ecological but also a political value. It is a philosophy that imparts importance to all living beings. In terms of environmental ethics, biocentrism is the principle that ensures the proper balance of ecology on the planet.
5. Moral Consider ability
This, too, is an important principle of environmental ethics. Intrinsic value is added to every being, which makes us consider being moral. Moral consider ability towards a being means that we agree that all our interactions whatsoever with the being is bound by moral laws.
Critical practices /processes adopted by business to showcase that ethical environmental responsibility
Full Cost Accounting
The main idea of environmental ethics is that nature has intrinsic value and shouldn’t be treated merely as a resource to be used up. But traditional accounting doesn’t match up with that vision. It only measures direct monetary costs, with no accounting for things like pollution and environmental waste, which are sometimes referred to as ‘negative externalities’ in economic theory.
To be consistent with environmental ethics, you would need to account for those externalities. One approach is called full cost accounting, or sometimes environmental full cost accounting.
2. Energy Efficiency
Did I just say ‘quick fix’? This next item definitely falls into that category. Simply by reviewing your energy usage and identifying ways to be more efficient, you can help the environment while also saving money.
Use this Better Business Guide to Energy Saving to help you walk through the steps. Basically, you just need to check your office, shop, factory or other workplace for compliance with basic energy common sense. For example:
- Are you using energy-efficient lighting?
- Are your heating and cooling systems properly controlled by thermostats?
- Are windows and doors insulated to stop all that expensive cooling/heating from escaping?
- Is your computer equipment operating efficiently?
- Are you and your employees regularly switching things off when not in use?
9. Resource Usage
We talked about packaging already, but businesses use a lot of other resources. So, examine your practices and see where you can make improvements. For example:
- Can you recycle more?
- Can you use less to begin with?
- Can you go paper free in your office, or at least reduce unnecessary paperwork?
Think less in terms of one-off items and more in terms of repeating processes. For example, if you run a café, a small change like providing food and drinks in reusable instead of disposable containers could make a huge difference over time.A clear environmental policy for your business, incorporating all of the points we’ve discussed, along with any others you want to add. Then you’ll need to support that with staff training and reinforce your commitment by constantly emphasizing the importance of environmental ethics in your communication with employees.
Global warming, global climate change, deforestation, pollution, resource degradation, the threat of extinction are few of the issues from which our planet is suffering. Environmental ethics are a key feature of environmental studies that establishes the relationship between humans and the earth. With environmental ethics, you can ensure that you are doing your part to keep the environment safe and protected.
Every time that a tree is cut down to make a home or other resources are used, we are using natural resources that are becoming more and sparser to find. It is essential that you do your part to keep the environment protected and free from danger. It is not as difficult to do as you may think so long as you’re willing to make a few simple and easy changes.
With the rapid increase in the world’s population, the consumption of natural resources has increased several times. This has degraded our planet’s ability to provide the services we humans need. The consumption of resources is going at a faster rate than they can naturally replenish. Environmental ethics builds on scientific understanding by bringing human values, moral principles, and improved decision making into conversation with science.
Gender bias or discrimination may be defined as differentiating people as male and female on the basis of gender or gender-based functions and treating them uniquely in the matter of social function, or treating them unjustly in the distribution or burdens and benefits in society. Throughout history, Women have always struggled to gain equality, respect and the same rights as men. This has been difficult because of patriarchy, an ideology in which men are superior to women and have the right to rule women. In order to fight patriarchy, feminism and feminist theory was born.
Concepts and application:
The factors influence the attitude of an individual towards gender bias:
Poor medical care
In addition to limited access to contraception, women overall receive lower-quality medical care than men. This is linked to other gender inequality reasons such as a lack of education and job opportunities, which results in more women being in poverty. They are less likely to be able to afford good healthcare.
Lack of religious freedom
When religious freedom is attacked, women suffer the most. According to the World Economic Forum, when extremist ideologies (such as ISIS) come into a community and restrict religious freedom, gender inequality gets worse.
Lack of political representation
Despite progress in this area over the years, women are still grossly underrepresented in government and the political process. This means that certain issues that female politicians tend to bring up – such as parental leave and childcare, pensions, gender equality laws and gender-based violence – are often neglected.
It would be impossible to talk about gender inequality without talking about racism. It affects what jobs women of color are able to get and how much they’re paid, as well as how they are viewed by legal and healthcare systems. Gender inequality and racism have been closely-linked for a long time.
It’s less tangible than some of the other causes on this list, but the overall mind-set of a society has a significant impact on gender inequality. How society determines the differences and value of men vs. women plays a starring role in every arena, whether it’s employment or the legal system or healthcare.
The differences in the intellectual strengths and weakness of the sexes cannot example more than a minute proportion of the difference in positions that males and females hold in our society. It might explain, for example, there should be more males than females in professions like architecture and engineering, professions that may require visual-spatial ability, but even in these professions, the magnitude of the differences in numbers cannot be explained by the genetic theory-spatial ability. This theory suggests that half as many females are as genetically advantaged in this area as males, which would account for the lower average scores of females in tests of visual-spatial ability, but cannot account for the fact that in most countries there are not merely twice as many males as females in architecture one engineering, but at least ten times as many.
Business ethics is the study of appropriate business policies and practices regarding potentially controversial subjects including corporate governance, insider trading, bribery, discrimination, corporate social responsibility, and fiduciary responsibilities. The law often guides business ethics, but at other times business ethics provide a basic guideline that businesses can choose to follow to gain public approval. Business ethics ensure that a certain basic level of trust exists between consumers and various forms of market participants with businesses. For example, a portfolio manager must give the same consideration to the portfolios of family members and small individual investors. These kinds of practices ensure the public receives fair treatment.
Concepts and application:
Business Ethics benefitted me as a person or a manager:
1. Ethics programs help avoid criminal acts “of omission” and can lower fines.
Ethics programs tend to detect ethical issues and violations early on so they can be reported or addressed. In some cases, when an organization is aware of an actual or potential violation and does not report it to the appropriate authorities, this can be considered a criminal act, e.g., in business dealings with certain government agencies, such as the Defence Department.
2. Ethics programs help manage values associated with quality management, strategic planning and diversity management — this benefit needs far more attention.
Ethics programs identify preferred values and ensuring organizational behaviours are aligned with those values. This effort includes recording the values, developing policies and procedures to align behaviours with preferred values, and then training all personnel about the policies and procedures. This overall effort is very useful for several other programs in the workplace that require behaviours to be aligned with values, including quality management, strategic planning and diversity management.
3. Ethics programs promote a strong public image.
Attention to ethics is also strong public relations — admittedly, managing ethics should not be done primarily for reasons of public relations. But, frankly, the fact that an organization regularly gives attention to its ethics can portray a strong positive to the public. People see those organizations as valuing people more than profit, as striving to operate with the utmost of integrity and honour.
4. Overall benefits of ethics programs:
Managing ethical values in the workplace legitimizes managerial actions, strengthens the coherence and balance of the organization’s culture, improves trust in relationships between individuals and groups, supports greater consistency in standards and qualities of products, and cultivates greater sensitivity to the impact of the enterprise’s values and messages.
The modern idea of business ethics as a field is relatively new, but how to ethically conduct business has been widely debated since bartering and trading first arose. Aristotle even proposed a few of his own ideas about business ethics.Business ethics are important for a variety of reasons. First and foremost, it keeps the business working within the boundaries of the law, ensuring that they aren’t committing crimes against their employees, customers, consumers at large, or other parties. However, the business also has a number of other advantages that will help them succeed if they are aware of business ethics.