This is the ability to use the knowledge in different practice scenarios while assessing parents; it starts from a general systems theory that incorporates human development ecologically. Therefore, it is sensitive and listens to the people’s stories rather than their composure, and it also provides a theoretical and conceptual clarity that ensures a child’s welfare. The critical view takes into account the practical and emotional aspects of parenting. When adopting a critical lens to a child’s protection practice, Milner (2015) suggests the primary analytical document should be the Trevithick conceptual schema for knowledge. Trevithick’s model contains the three core domains that a social worker must acquire to ensure competence. The three-core domain is knowledge from other disciplines, for example, psychology, practice theories, or discrete set of ideas that outline social work models and practice knowledge that is adapted under different scenarios (Milner et al., 2015). The practice theories should be incorporated from the Social Care On-Line, parenting, and parenting assessment sources to obtain factual information. Therefore, the approach was tested through experienced social workers who had had a two-year experience or more and who attended a master’s course in Northern Ireland. The author administered the course for seven-plus years from (2006-2013) to different classes of students. A module in the course emphasizes the enhancement of the social worker’s competence in assessing parental capacity, basing on both factual and theoretical knowledge (Forrester, et al., 2012). The author records the reactions of the social workers to the materials that dwell on assessing the essential characteristics of a eutopia assessing model for parents and studies the hindrances to such a model and considerations on the opportunities and constraints I the social orders roles and skills, knowledge values needed for one to be a competent assessor.
The Australian Association of Social Workers (ASSW) defines child assessment as an ongoing informing decision-making practice that involves finding out, sorting, and weighing factors that affect children the youths and their families (Gillingham 2017). Assessment should take place when reported and gains the attention of the social service or before and continues to the closure of the case. Schmidt and Stokes (2012) note that it is difficult, challenging, and fraught to make decisions regarding child protection. According to Gambrill (Davidzon, 2010), decisions are usually based on conflicting, unreliable, and insufficient bits of information that are in a pressurized environment. Social workers are required to decide on the safety of the child despite this uncertainty, and this includes the decision on whether a child should be put into foster care or whether to supplement additional family support. These not so random decisions can affect and change the lives of children and their families. The application of theoretical knowledge is more real and not a controlled lab test, and therefore the social worker should incorporate the learned skills in the actual environment and learn actual practicing. Milner (2005) speaks of repetition with a variation, which is the art or practice of social workers to understand the individual situation of the client.
The power element in the social worker-service user relationship should be maintained. The power element suggests that the relationship could be well understood should be facilitated by the social worker in terms of equal opportunities to close the gap. For an assessment to be effective, it needs to consider the impact of the availability or lack of resources. Similarly, it asserts that oppressed groups’ policies should be used in case of oppression issues (Milner et al., 2015). In addition, the diversity element should also be acknowledged. Milner (2015) states that different people’s situations and people are diverse and should differ from one’s assessment. There are differences in power, role, race, lifestyle, culture, work, education, degree of stigma and other factors that differentiate the roles of a social worker and those of a client or the service user. The differences create a gap that is upon the social worker to bridge (Milner et al., 2015).
The United Nations Convention in the Rights of a Child (Williams 2013) states that the rights of the child should be the topmost priority. It adopts a rights-based approach consistent with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. It prioritizes on ensuring that all children are heard, consulted, and considered in making life-changing decisions I regard to the child’s ability and understanding. It also states that all children should be informed on the same, and these rights should be accorded in disregard of religion, race, gender abilities, beliefs, or culture. The rights of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and children who hail from linguistically and culturally diverse backgrounds are considered when assessing.
The assessment of the family is deemed ‘a process’ rather than the completion of a ‘tool.’ The assessment procedure incorporates both the engagement of the family and filling a form that can be used in the assessment. A comprehensive assessment does not, however, entail only filling the form. AASW takes the safety of the child first and also considers future safety in case of later mistreatments, child parental protection, and their wellbeing. The assessment is deemed to provide information to help children, youth, and families to cope with new challenges, deal with safety issues from the child and other members or make decisions on the appropriate intervention and when reviewing the effectiveness of the decisions. According to risk and analysis snapshot outline (Tunick et al., 2011); Australia should put into consideration the changing family dynamics, for instance, the ability of the parent to prioritize the child’s safety and needs, and the hindrances. Snapshot also focuses on determining the possibility of a later child breakdown if nothing is done. The snapshot covers the vulnerability of the child in terms of their developmental age, special needs, parental beliefs, and temperament. It also addresses the strengths and protective factors that include factors that might predispose them to risk and concerns.
For an effective working corporation with Australian families, a comprehensive CP assessment needs to be done, and it should include; preparation on the people to see, data collection from the people met, weighing the data on the current social and psychological theory, and analyze the problem and determine its seriousness and utilizing the analysis, this includes finalizing the judgment, and it involves risk-taking (Milner, 2015). Holand (2010) noted that assessment is faced with deficiencies that can be due to over optimism, lack of expertise, service user dissatisfaction, and preoccupation with past problems. Likewise, Holand (2010) asserts that these familiar problems are the cause of unsatisfactory results, which include child deaths. The optimistic social worker believes that they are experiencing progress and filters out concerns and anticipates a breakthrough. This does not, however, mean that the social worker should focus on the negatives, but ensure a balance of all expectations. The social worker should ask when a client is not faring well, and the reason while a client on the other side can fake the compliance or refuse to acknowledge the problem. When clients make the process seem legit, although it is not, conflicting information incidents of child harm is evident. It comes from family members, professionals, neighbors and children. According to Peterson (Hoy et al., 2011), optimism, hope resilience, and positivism can be detrimental to progress. He noted the dangers of optimistic approaches that are optimistic that relate to accidents, illnesses, and child protection work. Accordingly (O’Reilly et al., 2010), states that the effects of hope which closely relate to hope and emphasizes keeping goals. The Australian review sees hope as a belief in one’s initiation, sustenance, and achievement capacity. Optimism is a positive approach that involves appraisals and making the best of what is seen as recorded by. Nonetheless, O’Reilly et al. (2010) refers to the negative pessimism effect being accompanied by negative results that deter change. He also emphasizes cultural variation; for instance, he noted that pessimism works for Asian Americans but not for Caucasian Americans.
To successfully support the family, all the past documentation needs to be reviewed, and this includes reviews of past experiences, family contacts, safety assessment, observations of the home environment, and any past specialist information. Likewise, to support the family, a meeting should be arranged with the family. Other supportive people should also be invited if they wish, and older children should also be involved. Other relevant people are former care providers who might help in the identification of the problem. The meetings help to draw the full picture and also assist the service providers in understanding those who can impact positively on the journey to change. Judgments should be made in the presence of the family, especially where violence is the case. An understanding of the family structure is required, their residence, and how they connect is important in solving the issue. Important information that can be drawn from these meetings is religious, tribal, and cultural affiliations that help to address the problem. Important tools to implement in this process are genograms, ecomaps, and ethnographic interviews. Broader issues that are detrimental to the safety and children’s wellbeing are also noted in the session. Other things that can be dwelt on are the parents’ view on why they are involved with social services. Through exploring their reform pleas may make the social worker notice their dedication to become better and might implore the social worker to suggest and support them in achieving the goal. The meetings also implore parental views on social work and their concerns on their children’s safety. They can recount of past social service encounters and determine the effectiveness of past recommendations. The meetings are also important in determining current problems that the problem that family is experiencing, for instance, work issues and injuries.
Meeting the relevant staff and agencies should be conducted; this includes the parent’s employers and other social services they are involved with. Some relevant people are family service providers and early childcare providers. Also, specializes assessments should be gathered; the social worker should involve other specialized agencies for a conclusive CP recommendation. The recommendations should take into consideration the mental health of the child, developmental issues, parental drug abuse, and their effect on a child’s growth and education.
Upon realizing the problem, attention should be focused on specific concern areas that affect the children’s wellbeing. Recommendations from specialists should also be weighed in the service plan. The social worker should also help the family in recognizing their contribution to the process to work, and this includes recognizing their strengths. Sorting out ways the family can help to contribute to the achievement of the safety and wellbeing of the children. The caseworker should critically take the process of making decisions from information gathered. The caseworker is required to employ risk reduction measures at first and ensure safety. The caseworker should also recommend services that address family problems. This judgment should put in use family strengths and weaknesses; therefore, the child’s caseworker should ensure the children’s safety. The children should also be assessed in the presence of a family member but not the parent. Due to their young age, behavioral aspects can be observed, which include psychological effects. Reviewing the process is useful in the evaluation and prevents concentration on the problem by the caseworker. Reassessment should, therefore, be carried out and should include all the parties. The review should be followed by the drawing of a plan and a review of the four systems through updating the maps according to progress. The maps assist in avoiding the assumption that the client or the parent is the lone beneficiary but integrates other parties too.
- Analysis and Risk assessment Snapshot BICPM: Child Protection Manual 2015.
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