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Coffee And Alzheimer’s Disease

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There are many benefits to drinking coffee. According to a new study by the Krembil brain institute, there are many health benefits to having a good morning. In addition to boosting energy and concentration, drinking coffee may help reduce an individual’s risk of developing alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.

After human beings enter the old age stage, there will be a variety of degenerative aging changes, especially in the psychological aspect, such as sensory perception degenerative changes obvious, memory decline, intelligence change, personality change and so on.The most common is alzheimer’s disease, now known as cognitive impairment, a primary degeneration of the central nervous system that cannot be reversed once it has occurred.

Lewy body dementia (DLB) is a group of neurodegenerative diseases whose clinical and pathological manifestations overlap between Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Most scholars believe that this disease has formed an independent disease, more common in the elderly, male slightly more than female.The etiology and pathogenesis of DLB are unclear.It has been found that DLB and Parkinson’s disease Lewy body are formed by the abnormal aggregation of alpha-synuclein from soluble to insoluble, and the factors affecting the expression and metabolism of alpha-synuclein may be related to the pathogenesis of DLB, which usually has little family genetic tendency. The experiment confirmed that the damage of cholinergic and monoaminergic neurotransmitters in DLB may be related to cognitive impairment and extrapyramidal movement disorder.

EHT is a compound extracted from coffee. Studies have shown that EHT works with caffeine to reduce the incidence of alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an insidious and progressive neurodegenerative disease. Clinical manifestations of generalized dementia include memory impairment, aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, impaired visuospatial skills, executive dysfunction, and personality and behavior changes. The disease may be a heterogeneous group of diseases that develop under the influence of multiple factors, including biological and psychosocial factors. According to current studies, there are more than 30 possible factors and hypotheses for the disease, such as family history, female, head trauma, low education level, thyroid disease, high or low childbearing age of the mother, virus infection, etc. Recent statistics show that about 50 million people worldwide suffer from alzheimer’s or other forms of dementia. According to the world health organization, about 60 percent of dementia patients worldwide come from low – and middle-income countries. ‘The total number of dementia cases is expected to reach 82 million by 2030 and 152 million by 2050,’ the who said. As a reference point, the U.S. population is now 329 million.

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Caffeine, a xanthine alkaloid compound, is a central nervous stimulant that temporarily dispels drowsiness and restores energy. It is clinically used to treat neurasthenia and coma resuscitation. Caffeinated coffee, tea, soft drinks and energy drinks are so popular that caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive drug in the world. In North America, 90% of adults use caffeine daily. Many natural sources of caffeine also contain a variety of other xanthine alkaloids, including the cardiac drugs theophylline and theobromine, as well as other substances such as tannins. For decades, caffeine has been known to be a powerful stimulant. Its action is especially apparent in central nervous system. Because of the stimulant effect of caffeine and the anxiety it causes in a small number of people, it is often thought that older people and children should consume as little caffeine as possible. But new research suggests that caffeine may be effective in preventing alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. So, daily coffee consumption or caffeine intake is a good thing for the elderly. Scientists now hope that caffeine and EHT can be combined into a drug to help treat Parkinson’s disease and lewy body dementia (DLB), two incurable conditions.

Studies have shown that coffee can fight Parkinson’s disease and some forms of dementia. Two compounds, including caffeine, work together to prevent the accumulation of toxic proteins in the mice’s brains. The protein, called alpha-synuclein, has been linked to Parkinson’s disease and lewy body dementia (DLB). Tests on rodents genetically at risk for both diseases have shown that the combination of caffeine and compound EHT prevents alpha-synuclein accumulation after just six months. Scientists now hope that caffeine and EHT can be combined into a drug to help treat Parkinson’s disease and lewy body dementia (DLB), both of which have no cure. The study was led by Dr. M Maral Mouradian, a neuroscientist at Rutgers University. According to the figures, nearly one million americans are expected to be diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease by 2020. About 145,500 people have been diagnosed in the UK. PD is a neurodegenerative disease that affects the dopamine-producing brain networks in the substantia nigra. Symptoms include shaking, stiffness, difficulty walking, and a loss of balance and coordination. Lewy body dementia (DLB) is a form of dementia that shares some of the same symptoms as Parkinson’s and alzheimer’s. This happens when alpha-synuclein appears in nerve cells in the brain. The function of alpha-synuclein in healthy brains is unclear. When it clumps, it causes cell death, which is associated with PD and DLB. Treatment for both diseases focuses on reducing the gene expression of the protein and preventing its aggregation. DLB affects about 1.3 million people in the United States, according to the lewy body dementia association. The alzheimer’s association says this is between 10 and 15 per cent of the 850,000 cases of dementia in the UK. Researchers analyzed newborn mice that expressed a gene that causes alpha-synuclein to accumulate in the brain. The rodents were given 50mg/kg of caffeine, 12mg/kg of EHT, or a mixture of the two in their food or water for six months. Tests were then carried out to assess the animals’ ability to move, learn and remember, skills that reflect activity in different parts of the brain. Alone, neither caffeine nor EHT worked. But mice that combined the two compounds had higher test scores. The rodents were then euthanized and their brains examined. This suggests that EHT and caffeine together enhance the activity of the protein PP2A, thereby preventing the accumulation of alpha-synuclein clumps.

Another research shows that when coffee beans are roasted, a chemical called phenyllindane is released, which blocks the release of proteins linked to dementia and Parkinson’s disease.However, phenyllindane does not cure or prevent dementia completely, but it does reduce the risk of dementia.Phenyllindane can inhibit the release of amyloid beta and tau proteins, which are released in tandem between neurons in the brain, and increase the risk of dementia. (glass dish) in vitro tests, the scientists found that two depth after roasting coffee can be particularly effective to prevent protein fragment condensation beta-amyloid and tau protein.The condensation of these brain segments is thought to be a major cause of alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.

In an analysis of all the compounds in the coffee tested, the scientists found that only one, phenyllindane, had an anticlotting effect.And the longer coffee is roasted, the more phenyllindane it contains, so the protective effect is more obvious.Interestingly, both beans showed the same effect when roasted at the same depth, regardless of whether the beans contained caffeine or not, suggesting it was not related to the amount of caffeine.This has helped scientists understand that it is not caffeine but other compounds produced during baking that produce the effect.The substance is the antioxidant phenyllindane, which prevents the formation of so-called amyloid plaques – neurofibrillary tangles that aggravate alzheimer’s disease.

The results suggest that it’s still not clear which compounds in coffee inhibit and prevent alzheimer’s. Because so far, the results from different experiments are not consistent. Overall, there are three conclusions: caffeine has an inhibitory effect on alzheimer’s disease; Caffeine and EHT work together to suppress alzheimer’s disease; And phenyllindane can inhibit alzheimer’s disease. But it’s safe to say that drinking moderate amounts of coffee every day is a healthy lifestyle, as it has been linked to lower rates of alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.

References

  1. Kolahdouzan, M, Hamadeh, MJ. ‘ The neuroprotective effects of caffeine in neurodegenerative diseases.” CNS Neurosci Ther 23:4 (2017):272-290.
  2. Hussain, A, Tabrez, ES, Mavrych, V, et,al. ‘ Caffeine: A Potential Protective Agent Against Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer’s Disease.” Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr 28:1 (2018):67-72.
  3. Nehlig, A. ‘ Effects of coffee/caffeine on brain health and disease: What should I tell my patients?” Pract Neurol 16:2 (2016):89-95.
  4. Mancini, RS, Wang, Y, Weaver, DF. “Phenylindanes in Brewed Coffee Inhibit Amyloid-Beta and Tau Aggregation” Frontier in Neuroscience (2018)
  5. Rivera, OM, Diaz, RM. “Using caffeine and other adenosine receptor antagonists and agonists as therapeutic tools against neurodegenerative diseases: a review.” Life Science 101:1-2 (2014) 1-9

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Coffee And Alzheimer’s Disease. (2022, Jun 16). Edubirdie. Retrieved October 7, 2022, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/coffee-and-alzheimers-disease/
“Coffee And Alzheimer’s Disease.” Edubirdie, 16 Jun. 2022, edubirdie.com/examples/coffee-and-alzheimers-disease/
Coffee And Alzheimer’s Disease. [online]. Available at: <https://edubirdie.com/examples/coffee-and-alzheimers-disease/> [Accessed 7 Oct. 2022].
Coffee And Alzheimer’s Disease [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Jun 16 [cited 2022 Oct 7]. Available from: https://edubirdie.com/examples/coffee-and-alzheimers-disease/
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