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Deception: Types, Detection, Components And Use

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The deception can include several different things, such as mask, camouflage, diversion, hand sleight, lies, and hiding. The agent will monitor the mind of the subject because the subject has faith in them. The subject believes what the agent says and could base their plans for the future and shape its universe on the stuff the agent told them. Deception is an omission and lying form of communication to persuade the subject’s world to serve the agent the best.

Types of deception

The Interpersonal Deception Theory outlined five different types of deception. The first one is lies. This is when the agent collects information or provides information that is totally different from the reality. This knowledge is to be presented to the subject, and the subject must understand it as the truth. The subject cannot understand that false information is being fed; if the subject understands that the data is wrong, he or she will not speak to the agent, and he or she will not be fooled.

Equivocation is the second type of deception. The agent makes conflicting, vague, and/or conditional statements. This is to make the subject confused and not understand what is happening. It can also save your face as an agent if the subject returns later, claiming they have been deceived.

Concealment is the other form of deception that is very common. It happens when the agent intentionally or by conduct hides or omits information that is relevant to the subject for a particular context. The agent will not have lied to the client directly, but he will ensure that the important information needed is never a subject.

Exaggeration happens when the agent overestimates a fact or stretches the facts to some degree to transform the story as it wishes. The agent may not lie to the subject directly, but they will make the current situation a bigger deal so that the subject bends to their will

An understatement is exactly the opposite of the method of an exaggeration, since the agent plays down or minimizes aspects of the reality. They will suggest that an incident isn’t so significant, when in fact it could be the thing that determines whether the subject is graduating or getting promoted. The agent will return later to explain that they did not realize how big a deal it was, and therefore they don’t end up being the bad guy. These are just some of the few forms of deception that can be identified. The deception agent will use any method available to him to achieve his final goal, very much as they like.

How to detect deception

If the subject wants to stop deceit their life so that the mind games that follow can be stopped, it is often a good idea to learn how to detect deception when it occurs. It is often hard for the subject to decide that deception exists unless the agent slips up and either tells a simple or flat lie or contradicts something which is already real. Although it may be difficult for the agent to deceive the subject for a while, it is often the case among people who know one another. It is often very hard to detect if deception occurs because no signs are really present.

Deception, however, is able to put a great deal of pressure on the mental workings of the agent because they need to find out how to recall all the comments they have made on the subject so that the tale remains plausible and consistent. One mistake on the part of the agent and the subject will tell something is wrong. The agent is more likely to redirect information to tip off the subject, either via non-verbal or verbal signals, because of the pressure they have to keep the past straight. Researchers believe that identification of deception is a mental, dynamic, and complex process that often differs from the message being exchanged. The Interpersonal Deceit Theory shows that deception is an iterative and complex mechanism of control that exists between the agent who manipulates information in such a way as to make it different from the reality and the subject who then tries to find out whether the message is true or not. The acts of the agent shall be linked with the actions of the subject after the message is received. The agent must disclose nonverbal and verbal details during this exchange, which will lead the subject deceit. The subject might be able to tell at some points that the agent has been lying to them.

Alert Vrij, a noted deception scholar, claims that there are no nonverbal actions that are solely related to deception. While some nonverbal actions may be linked to the act of deception, it is also possible that these cues are related to other factors present at the time. Unless, of course, the agent outrightly lies to the subject. Another scholar of deception, Mark Frank, provides an idea of deception as involving the identification at the cognitive level of the subject. If deception takes place, a cautious attitude is important on the part of the agent, and the subject should listen to the words and takes note of the body language in order to determine whether they are being deceived.

Main components of deception

While deciding what factors display during deception may be difficult, there are certain components that are typical of deception. It is often not obvious that these elements existed unless the agent told a blatant lie or was caught in deception. These are components that will be later remembered if the agent uses the deception technique in the right way. Camouflage, mask, and simulation are the three main components of deception.

Camouflage is the first dimension of deception. This is when the agent tries to conceal the facts otherwise so the target does not know that the information is missing. This technique is often used when the agent uses half-truths when they giving information about something. The subject will not know that camouflage took place until the truth is revealed sometime later. The agent is able to mask the facts so that the target can honestly find it hard to learn by chance about the deception.

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Disguise is another component of the deception process. It occurs when the agent depicts themselves as other people to the subject. The agent can decide to hides something from the subject, such as their real name, what they do for a living, with whom they were with and what they are up to when they are out. This is more than simply changing the suit someone wears in a piece of film; the agent tries to change their entire personality to deceive their target. There are examples that demonstrate the use of disguise in the deception process. One is to dress in interactions with the agent, sometimes as someone else, so that they cannot be identified or recognized. The agent will do this to get back into a multitude of people who don’t like them, change their personality to make people like them, or otherwise advance their goals. In some situations, the word disguise can be the agent who disguises the true nature of a proposal in the hope that it hides any controversial effect or motive for such a proposal. This cover also takes on the form of propaganda or political rotation. Disguise can be dangerous because the true nature of what is happening is concealed. If the agent disguises who they are, it can be really hard for the subject to decide who the agent really is. When information is hidden from the subject, it clouds the ability of subject to think, as they do not have the right information to make logical choices. Although the subject can assume that he makes logical decisions on their own will, the agent excludes key information that might change the mind of the subject.


This is the third component of deception. The agent shows the subject information that is untrue. There are three important techniques that an agent can use in simulation. The first is mimicry, where the agent is unknowingly depicting something that is similar to themselves. They could be talking about someone else’s idea and make give credit to themselves by saying that the idea is theirs.

Fabrication is the second technique where an agent will use something in reality and change it so that it becomes different. They can tell a story and add embellishments to make the story sound better or worse than it actually was. While the main story may have happened, it is going have things added on top it and change the whole narrative

Lastly, we have a distraction as a form simulation. This is when the agent tries to make the subject concentrate on something other than the facts, usually baiting or proposing something more appealing than the reality of the matter. For example, when the husband is having an affair and feels that the wife is starting to learn about it, he may take a diamond ring home to confuse her. The problem with this strategy is that it does not always last long, and the agent must find another way to confuse the subject in order to continue the process.

How to use deception

Psychological research is the sector that mostly uses deception as it is necessary to determine the actual results. The explanation behind this deception says that people are very sensitive to the way they look both to others and to themselves and that their self-awareness can distort or interfere with the way the subject is compared to doing research, in normal circumstances, in which they do not feel examined. The deception is intended to make people feel more comfortable so that the agent can get right results.

The agent may be interested, for example, in knowing which circumstances a student could cheat on a test. If the agent specifically investigates the student, the subjects are unlikely to confess to lying, and the agent could not make out who tells the truth and who does not. In this scenario, the agent should use a distraction to get a clear picture of how cheating fraud takes place. Alternatively, the agent could suggest that the study is about how intuitive the subject is; even in the process, you can say that you can look at the answers of someone else before offering your own answers. This analysis includes the conclusion.

Alternatively, the researcher may suggest that the research seeks to find out how insightful the subject is. The subject may even be advised that they have the opportunity to look for answers from someone else before providing their own answers. At the conclusion of the deception experiment, the agent should ask the subject what the real nature of the trial is and why the deception is required. In addition, some agents will also give a quick description of the results between all participants when the study is carried out.

In addition, some agents will also provide a quick summary of the research results achieved among all participants after the research is done. Although deception in research studies of this kind is used widely, it is bound up with the ethical standards set out by the American Psychological Association; there is some controversy as to the issue of whether deception should be allowed. Many think that deception is not needed, and it harms the participating subjects. Others believe that if the subjects knew the nature of the study in advance, the results would become skewed.

Some suggest that if the individuals had understood the exact nature of the analysis beforehand, the findings would be distorted. The main problem with the use of deception in a study is often not the real deception. Instead, what happens is the harsh procedure used in such a study as well as the effects of what occurs in the experiment. This is generally the reason why some people resist using such experiments and why it is considered unethical. Another reason against the morality of deception is that the participant already has informed consent to engage in the research.

The rules and regulations that follow the study were read, and the subject felt that they are told enough about the end results to sign a waiver to begin. It is claimed that where the agent deceives the subject and leaves out important information on the research, regardless of whether it is in the best interest of the study, the subject is simply not told at first. Therefore, if they didn’t specifically consent to the actual study they should not participate in the study.

Regardless of the arguments in this field, some interesting observations were made when the subjects were fooled about the nature of the analysis. An example, with regard to the above research on cheating, it is possible that most of them would not have cheated if the participants were told what the experiment was about. This is because neither of them wants to be seen to those around them as being deceptive or false. The deception helped the scientists to see what could happen in a real-world application. Therefore, if the participants of the memory test referred to above know the true nature of the experiment, they could not have likely listened to the figure of authority or controlled its performance. Despite the controversies surrounding, researchers have obtained some interesting results through the use of deception. Such findings might not have been possible without deception, as the subject could have reacted differently to the test.

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Deception: Types, Detection, Components And Use. (2021, September 29). Edubirdie. Retrieved March 21, 2023, from
“Deception: Types, Detection, Components And Use.” Edubirdie, 29 Sept. 2021,
Deception: Types, Detection, Components And Use. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 21 Mar. 2023].
Deception: Types, Detection, Components And Use [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2021 Sept 29 [cited 2023 Mar 21]. Available from:
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