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Definition And Basic Principles Of Genetic Engineering

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Biologists make a lot of experiments to solve a specific problem. Some experiences fail, others succeed. One of their experiments was genetic engineering which is genetic manipulation to change the characteristics of any living organ as desired. Although genetic engineering has disadvantages, they use them to get their benefits. The 1973 the first use of the genetic engineering . in this essay, we are going to talk about the process of genetic engineering and how the technology help in it.


A gene is the basic functional unit of heredity. Genes are made up of DNA. genes act as instructions to make proteins. But some genes do not code for proteins. Genes vary in size in humans. from hundred DNA bases to more than 2 million bases. And the human has between 20000 to 25000 gene

Every person has two copies of each gene, one inherited from each parent. Most genes are the same in all people, but a small number of genes (less than 1 percent of the total) are slightly different between people. Alleles are forms of the same gene with small differences in their sequence of DNA bases. These small differences contribute to each person’s unique physical features. This is why we are different.

Genes name is very long so scientists keep truck of genes to give them unique names, to be shorter they assented by symbols combinations of letters and numbers for example, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chromosome called chromosome 7 and it is symbol is CFTR.

Definition of Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering and sometimes called direct manipulation of DNA to modify an organism’s characteristics in a particular way as we want.

It is referred various techniques used for the modification or manipulation of organisms through the processes of heredity and reproduction. This term contains artificial selection and all the interventions of biomedical techniques, among them artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization for example test tubes babies cloning, and gene manipulation. In the latter part of the 20th century, however, the term came to refer more specifically to methods of recombinant DNA technology and sometimes called gene cloning, in which merge DNA from 2 sources or more In side cells or in laboratory and then inserted into host organisms in which they are able to propagate.

The process of genetic engineering:

The genetic engineering is done in three main steps. In this essay, it will be explained by an example about genetically modified insulin. First, A small piece of circular DNA called a plasmid is extracted from the bacteria or yeast cell. Then, A small section is then cut out of the circular plasmid by restriction enzymes, ‘molecular scissors. Third, the gene for human insulin is inserted into the gap in the plasmid. This plasmid is now genetically modified. The genetically modified plasmid is introduced into a new bacteria or yeast cell. This cell then divides rapidly and starts making insulin. To create large amounts of the cells, the genetically modified bacteria or yeast are grown in large fermentation vessels that contain all the nutrients they need. The more the cells divide, the more insulin is produced. When fermentation is complete, the mixture is filtered to release the insulin. Finally, the insulin is then purified and packaged into bottles and insulin pens for distribution to patients with diabetes.

How the technology assist in genetic engineering:

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Nowadays the technologies help in discover many things including the genetic engineering. The scientists used many technology machines in the labs. In genetic engineering, scientists used Polymerase Chain Reaction, Restriction Enzymes (Molecular Scissor), Gel Electrophoresis and anther machines. Scientists used them for some purposes like in the process of replicating multiple copies of the genes of interest. Furthermore, In cutting DNA at specific locations. Also, helps visualize the size and type of DNA, in genes transferring. In addition, Quantitative and qualitative detection of gene expression and accurate detection of the number of genetic copies present in the sample.

The advantages of genetic engineering:

Everything in life has it’ s advantages and disadvantages as well as field of genetic engineering. There are many fields of genetic engineering and each field has its advantages.

The first field is agriculture and its advantages are Increasing the volume of agricultural production, Improving the characteristics of the agricultural crop, such as: the possibility of storing for a longer period, improving its resistance to diseases. The second field is medical and it’s advantages are it helped to discover many genetic diseases, their causes, and methods of treatment, such as: sickle cell disease , It was also able to produce many medical hormones such as: growth hormone, insulin and In addition to making, and adjusting vaccinations in order to reduce their side effects on the human body, Insertion and transfer of genes and tissue culture .The third field is industrial and it’s advantages are It has been sufficient to use some of the micro-biology of biotechnology to produce many biotechnology laboratories from the agricultural laboratory community, Microbial conversion experiments enabled the production of ethanov commercially through the effluents of agricultural and industrial by-products .

The fourth field is animal husbandry and it’s advantages are Inserting some genes into animals, as these genes fight viruses and infections ,Increase its growth speed by providing it with the gene for the rapid growth hormone, Protecting endangered species, Show desirable properties, Work to convert its waste into organic fertilizer, through genetically modified bacteria and Production of vaccines for diseases that affect it, especially poultry, such as: fever, and Newcastle. The fifth field is Contribute to solving the problem of pollution and its advantages are by producing bacteria to analyze waste, and other bacteria work to get rid of oil in the sea by breaking up and swallowing its molecules, and this process is called biological treatment.

Disadvantages and application of genetic engineering

One of the disadvantages of genetic engineering is that it is a technology that can be easily abused. The reality of genetic engineering is that DNA insertion could be used to create severe problems for certain groups of people. If done, the consequences to our society would be numerous and unpredictable.

Another disadvantage of genetic engineering is that it limits the amount of diversity that is available. Although genetic engineering seems like it would increase diversity, it actually decreases it. That is because one preferred product becomes the focus of the industry when it performs well. For example, there are hundreds of banana types, but only Cavendish bananas tend to be shipped to global markets.

On the other hand, Agriculture is an important application of genetic engineering. Agriculture application is altering the genotype of crop plants to make them more productive, nutritious, rich in proteins, disease resistant, and less fertilizer consuming.

Another application of genetic engineering is energy production. Through this technology is now possible to bioengineer energy crops or biofuels that grow rapidly to yield huge biomass that used as fuel or can be processed into oils, alcohols, diesel, or other energy products.

Industries is an application, too. A variety of organic chemicals can be synthesized at large scale with the help of genetically engineered microorganisms.


Genetic engineering the process of purposefully altering an organism’s DNA – has been used to create powerful research tools and model organisms, and has also seen many applications in many different domains. Also used to realize the promise of gene therapy for treating human diseases, further advances in the field are still needed.

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Definition And Basic Principles Of Genetic Engineering. (2022, February 27). Edubirdie. Retrieved August 12, 2022, from
“Definition And Basic Principles Of Genetic Engineering.” Edubirdie, 27 Feb. 2022,
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