The paper represents a smart gadget to avert the calamitous effects of pest bugs in the farming land and pH level in the water bodies. This device is able to generate different frequencies of ultrasonic waves which are very helpful to repel different types of insects. To reduce the cost spent on pesticides. The implementation of this device in farmland will show a great reduction of bugs attack compared to the other land which doesn’t have one.
Pest bugs may cause harmful as well as disastrous influences on farming production and the organic atmosphere. Infestation pestilence might conclude in issues through destroying harvest and nutrients manufacturing that may well lead to health and fitness risk to human beings. Most important effect of ultrasonic sound is that they not only work as a repellent but also has an effect on reducing in mating and reproduction of various harmful insects. People are not able to listen to ultrasound because the eardrum will not vibrate rapid but several animals can listen effectively into the ultrasonic range. The pH of the water bodies helpful to maintain the nutrients’ availability in the water as well as in the soil. PH sensor shows the condition of the water that used for the irrigation.
What is pH?
Before we talk about how PH is measured, let’s briefly discuss what PH values mean. PH is actually an abbreviation for potential of hydrogen. It is a numerical value assigned to a solution that tells us how acidic or basic that solution is. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14; pH values that are less than 7 are defined as being acidic while pH values greater than 7 are defined as basic. A pH that is a perfect 7 is said to be neutral and is neither acidic nor basic.
Methods of Determining PH
Now that we know what PH is and have some insight into its numerical values, let’s discuss the various methods and instrumentation available for measuring the pH of a solution.
A conductivity meter is an instrument that detects the presence of electrical current within a solution. By definition, acids release hydrogen ions in solution, and bases release hydroxide (-OH) ions. Both of these species possess an electrical charge, and it’s the job of the conductivity meter to not only detect the charge but also calculate the relative concentration of the ions. By knowing the concentration, the instrument is able calculate the PH of the solution.
Another way chemists determine the PH of a solution is by using a PH meter. A PH meter is very similar to a conductivity meter, however the pH meter specifically looks for and detects the hydrogen ion concentration within a solution. Usually a PH meter must be calibrated to ensure its accuracy, and this is typically done by using a standard solution whose exact PH is known. The meter is set to that specific value and then unknown PH values are determined in reference to the standard.
Eco Friendly Agriculture
Organic farming is a form of agriculture that hangs on various techniques such as vermicomposting, crop rotation, green manure, Animal Husbandry, Bio fertilizers and biological pest control. Organic farming is the form of doing crop/plant cultivation by using organic manures which are ecofriendly manures that promotes the life of soil and other useful organisms in the soil. Organic farming is an acclimated practice in developing countries, where farmers use animals for tilling the land and manures prepared by dung and other waste material of animals. Organic farming supports the crop yield and property of production. Most of the developed countries use unnatural chemicals to protect from insects, pests, and other plant diseases. The use of synthetic chemicals may give high yield for some time and protects the plants but the continuous use of chemical in farming, useful organisms in soil become inert and the insects or pests and other diseases gain resistance to the chemicals and later the chemicals may not show its effect on the pests, insects, and other harmful organisms to the crops. Organic farming system in some developing countries like India is not new and is being followed from antique days. Bio fertilizers are prepared with be advantageous microbes which discharge nutrients to soil and support the crop growth and product yield without any environmental pollution
The population of world is increasing time to time and there would be necessity of the food production to feed the world but to meet the requirement in a sustainable manner. Every country want to practice organic farming and should avoid the use of synthetic chemicals, but the ‘Green Revolution’ had brought a vast change in food production and now it requires organic form of ‘Green Revolution’ by meeting the food requirement and to conserve the soil life and the Ecosystem. Fertility of the soil is decreasing with use of synthetic chemical and the harmful organisms are increasing resistances towards synthetic chemicals and these chemicals are harmful to the animals and the ecosystem. Many countries import and export various food products like fruits, crops, seeds etc. from these some of the food products are interdicted to import due to high chemical content which would harm the health by consuming it
The intension of the organic farming is to produce chemical free food and to maintain the fertility of the soil for long period. This also extend employment to the agriculture labors in various forms like nonchemical weeding, composting and strip farming etc.
Methods of Organic Farming
Organic farming includes various techniques which are ecofriendly and by practicing it the fertility of soil is conserved for long period. There various designs in organic farming some of them are Crop rotation, use of green manures, biological pest control and composting, these also provide employment to agriculture labors.
Employment to agriculture labors
In present day machinery are replacing man power and making them unemployed but with organic farming it provides employment because many techniques are used, from preparation of manure to crop harvesting
It is a technique of growing various crops in same area according to the seasons and it is practiced to avoid agriculture pests, and to maintain soil fertility.
Green manures are the plant leaves and waste material of plant which include the soil and stuffed in to soil and become as nutrient to the soil and increase the soil.
It is a process of composting using different worms like white worms, earth worms and red wrigglers for preparation of compost with mix of kitchen waste and other vegetable waste. This is wealthy in nutrients and used as fertilizers in the agriculture fields.
What is Ultrasound?
The hearing property of human ear is limited. Human ear can observe sound with in a frequency range of 20 Hz to 20 kHz. The sound frequency beneath 20 Hz is Infrasonic sound and beyond 20 kHz is Ultrasonic sound. Human ear is not sensitive to US because the eardrum cannot bob as fast as US. Ultrasound has high frequency, so the wave is very effective. US travels along straight line even in the obstacles. When the US hits an object, it bows and round and stretch in all directions.
What is the similarity between (US) Ultrasound and animals?
Even though human ear cannot sense US, many animals can attain and hear US. Many insects, rodents, bats and small mammals convey through US. Insects have sensory structures to attain and identify ultrasound. Cockroaches have “Sensory hairs” to sense US. Spiders, Wasps, Beetles, Flies etc have a “Tympanic membrane” to recognize US. Fleas communicate using high frequency US. Male Mosquitoes produce US to attract females. Female mosquitoes have sensory structures to receive US. Spiders, lizards also have ability to sense US.
How does US affect animals?
The US sensors are confer in the antennae of Mosquitoes and genetalia of Cockroaches. US emitted by the Repeller will scare away the pests and agitate them. Ultrasonic sound will create stress on the nervous system of insects and block their own US frequency. This will attenuate the insects, and they escape from the source of US.
US pest chasers are designed to resist pests from the home. Rodents reply to US with a frequency around 60 kHz. Cats and Dogs can be disgusted using 22-25 kHz. Insects like mosquitoes, House fly, Fleas etc reply to 38-44 kHz. US will produce high pressure on the eardrum of Rats so that they move away from US source. US generally produce stress on animals, so they avoid ultrasound.
Male mosquito is the natural enemy of female mosquito after reproduction. Both male and female mosquitoes use plant juice as nourishment. But female mosquito need human blood protein for the maturation of their eggs. Male mosquitoes will not nip human beings. On the first day of emergence, the female mosquito will not nip but after mating with male it starts to nip human beings to get blood. Female mosquito will not permit males to mate again, and they avoid the presence of males. Females know the presence of males by sensing the US produced by the males. If a US generator is used, it will identify male mosquito by producing 38 kHz US. This will resist Female mosquitoes. Moreover the US will produce stress on the US sensillae present on the antenna of female mosquitoes, so the move away from the source of US.
US Pest Repellers are generally used in Homes, Gardens, Farm yards etc. to repel different kinds of pests. Commercial US Pest Repellers are planned to emit US in the frequency range 20 kHz to 100 kHz. US overhead 20 kHz is inaudible to man but children can hear the US to a certain level up to 30 kHz. Many house hold appliances like Telephone, Computer, Vacuum cleaner etc emit US, but we cannot hear it because it is inaudible. US is acknowledged as the safest technique for scanning pregnancy.
What are the important features of ultrasound pest chasers?
Most ultrasonic pest Repellers do not give good results due to one of the following reasons.
- Power output of the Transducer. If the power output is low, pests will refuse the sound.
- Direction and angle of sound. Usually ultrasound moves at an angle of 45 degree from the source. If there is an obstacle in the way, some of the sound waves will reflect and bow. This decrease the coverage area.
- Response to animals. Usually small animals respond to US. These devices are used to annoy pests from houses, farm yards, garden etc. The rebound depends on the number of pests in the population, and the number of US waves reaching in their vicinity.
In existing system we will be using pesticides for pest conrol. It alters the natural condition of soil which may prevent future cultivation. Earthworm will die by cause of noxious contents of the pesticides. Thus the crops which are harvested using pesticides results in ill effects to the people who eat it. The system used here to control pests are ultasonic sound waves. These waves reduce the pests in an eco-friendly manner. The usage of certain frequencies for desired pests help us to control them. PH of the soil will also be continuously monitored thus providing the best quality of water for cultivation. The key point is As the pesticides are harmful to be used we came up with another idea for the controlling of different pests from affecting the agriculture. That we could use “ULTRASONICS” at the range of 33khz to 48khz which can easily affect the pests and protect the farm. These are installed at particular positions based on the size of the field, and the range we set in the ultrasonic sensors. But if we adjust the frequency of the ultrasonic waves produced by the sensors we can use it to diminish the pests. The frequency generally for 20khz. The main pest that affect the cereal crops is “Aphids”. These Aphids cannot withstand the frequency that ranges from 33khz-48khz. By increasing to this frequency the pests can be controlled.
We can implement this ultrasonic in the agriculture field, which is economically beneficial instead of using pesticide and moreover it avoids health issues for the farmers. The water purity content checking will identify the chemical content in water, by doing this we not only save the agriculture but also save land from soil erosion. The usage of pesticides decreases the ground water table this can be controlled by implying our method.
- “Insect Mite and Vertebrate Pests and Their Management in Horticultural Crops” done by P Parvatha Reddy
- “Fungal Diseases and Their Management in Horticultural Crops” done by P Parvatha Reddy
- Definition of PH scales, standard reference values, measurement of PH and related terminology (Recommendations 1984) on page 540
- J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1958, 80 (23), pp 6467– 6467 DOI: 10.1021/ja01556a090 Publication Date: December 1958
- Arduino- Technical Reference by J. M. Hughes