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Developing and Evaluating a Comprehensive Module to Enhance Creativity in Adolescents

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People frequently ask these questions: can one teach or stimulate creativity in an individual? Can one manifest creativity in an individual who had never manifested it? A mortal who had been an out of the box thinker at a given time, but presently not exhibiting any creativity, can be assisted? How can teachers assist students or children to be more creative or groundbreaking in their path towards solving any problem? Where and how should one use these creativity-enhancing techniques? How relevant are techniques such as brainstorming or creative dramatics for stimulating individual creativity? What should one do to help them?

These are a few questions that arise whenever one deals with the people who want to enhance their creativity level or their relative creativity level (Stein, 1974). In answering these questions, various practical, evaluative and theoretical studies have been conducted, which have shown the development of numerous techniques; the process is often called ‘implements for creative thinking’.

Among these techniques or strategies, few are effective ones, which should be focused or followed for becoming more innovative in daily life. These techniques play a crucial role in the individual’s mental development, as using the same an individual learns problem-solving ability and learns how to push himself out of his limit. Applications of these techniques probably inculcate attitudes or habits in mind that facilitate creativity: self-determination in the verdict, eagerness to explore various options, and perseverance beyond the first idea. There is no correct answer to the question of why or what condition gives rise to creativity. One of the techniques that assist creativity might be imitating or stimulating the cognitive processes in the brain (Lewis, 2009).

Educators and counsellors should recognize, appreciate, and promote different styles of creativity to enhance the productivity of their students or clients. According to Stein (1974), there are three underlying assumptions which every educator or counsellor should keep in his mind: First, we should understand the concept of creativity so that we know what we want to stimulate or develop. Second, everyone who has shown his or her creativity generally agrees on one idea that novelty is achieved through the process of creativity. Third, the process of creation takes its own time. There is no shortcut or easy for developing creativity, it requires sincerer efforts.

Creativity can be enhanced by the combination of conscious thinking and the unconscious thinking that occurs during the period of incubation. Incubation is one of the stages or periods of the creative thinking process, which includes taking a break from all practical situations. During this period, only new creative ideas take place. The present research deals with teaching creative thinking skills, which play a prominent role to mould the knowledge seekers who are the solely responsible individuals in creating a better place for the present and future generation.

Creativity – meaning

Creativity is a cognitive process, a significant, sophisticated human capacity to produce novel ideas, generate new solutions for any problem, and uniquely express oneself, a mental activity that is an insight of an individual. It is a novel idea, which has been produced by an individual for solving any problem (Lubart & Georgsdottir, 2004). According to Stein (1975), Creativity is a process that leads to novel work, which is accepted as useful, tenable, or satisfying by a significant group of people at some point in time. As a process, creativity consists of overlapping stages- hypothesis formation, hypothesis testing and communication of the results- all of these follow a preparatory or an educational stage, which is not always, a part of the creative process. Interpersonal or intrapersonal factors affect all these stages. The relationship between the individual and his environment affects all these factors.

Based on environmental conditions, there are four P’s of creativity, i.e. Person, Process, Press, and Product (Rhode, 1961). In order to combine these four approaches, Rhode defined the word creativity as ‘a noun naming the phenomena in which a person communicates a new concept (which is the product)’. He explains mental activity (or mental process) in terms of the implicit function that no one could conceive of a person living or operating in a vacuum, even the term press is also implicit. His definition explains these points.

  1. Newness as a creativity
  2. Creativity is not conformity
  3. Truth, generalization, and surprises are the three basic requirements for creative thought.
  4. Particular focus on the process towards the development of creative thought.
  5. Mental abilities of the individual to produce creative thought
  6. Level of creativity in an individual

Through this definition, Rhode cleared that in the process of being creative, there are many things to be kept in mind.

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According to Haefele (1962), creativity is defined as an ability to formulate new combinations from two or more concepts already in mind, ‘Creativity is the ability to make the new combination’, and creativity process stands for the process of making it.

In 1988, Perkins defined creativity as:

  • a) “ Original and appropriate are the results of a creative thinking task,
  • b) a creative person is a person who fairly, routinely produces creativity results”.

Perkins’ approach attaches both the concepts of creative people and creative activities in a neat, practical package. The most probable characteristics in this proposition are novelty and originality being a prominent part of creativity. The literature work that emulates from previous references or scientific discoveries, a rework of earlier works, is seldom considered creative. In order to be creative, thought, or creation must be novel and purely new.

Some of the definitions focus on characteristics of the individual whose work is identified to be creative (What is a creative person like?), whereas others focus on the work itself (What makes this creative?). Either of these cases, most definitions have two primary criteria for judging creativity: novelty and appropriateness (Parkhurst, 1999; Sternberg, 1988; 1999).

For the process of an innovative idea, numerous techniques have been designed, which can give birth to creative thinking in an individual. Although astounding works in the area of art or life-changing scientific exploration are the customary associations that are readily elicited whenever we consider the concept of creativity, our capacity to be creative is manifest in relation to all the aspects of human life which connects choice and decision making, language and communication, and even planning and organization (Runco & Pritzker 2011; Sawyer, 2012). While the potential to be creative exists within each, there are considerable individual differences in both the type and amount of creative output that can be produced by an individual over a lifetime.

Sternberg (2006), in his book ‘the international handbook of creativity’ has drawn out some generalized issues related to creativity.

  • a. Creativity focuses on the production of ideas which are relatively novel and applicable by nature.
  • b. Creativity consists of both domain-specific and domain-general elements.
  • c. To some degree, creativity can be measured.
  • d. To some degree, creativity can be developed.
  • e. Creativity is not rewarded in practice, as it counts to be more logical process by its essential nature.

The most crucial fact about creativity research is that to date, very less work has been done in this area (Sternberg, 2006). In every country, there is a scarcity of research work done related to creativity as compared to another topic, and whatever research work has been done is relatively poorly systematized. The answer to the question ‘why it is so?’ might have the following reasons (Sternberg, 2006).

  • a. The Government wants its people to be more creative, but there is no action ever taken to achieve it.
  • b. The concept of creativity is tough to understand.
  • c. Research in creativity is marginal.
  • d. Selection process or mechanisms does not favour creative people.
  • e. There is an impact of popularization.

Despite all these difficulties, the concept of creativity can formulate its theories, research, assessment, and has developed around the world.

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Developing and Evaluating a Comprehensive Module to Enhance Creativity in Adolescents. (2022, December 27). Edubirdie. Retrieved September 29, 2023, from
“Developing and Evaluating a Comprehensive Module to Enhance Creativity in Adolescents.” Edubirdie, 27 Dec. 2022,
Developing and Evaluating a Comprehensive Module to Enhance Creativity in Adolescents. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 29 Sept. 2023].
Developing and Evaluating a Comprehensive Module to Enhance Creativity in Adolescents [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Dec 27 [cited 2023 Sept 29]. Available from:
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