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Disorders Affecting the Nervous and Musculoskeletal System

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The human body is made up of biological systems that have specific functions for regular living. The nervous system controls both intentional activity (like cognizant development) and automatic activities (like breathing) and sends signals to distinctive parts of the body. The central anxious framework incorporates the brain and spinal rope. The central nervous system comprises of nerves that interface each other portion of the body to the nervous system. The musculoskeletal system comprises of around 650 muscles that help in development, blood stream and other real capacities. There are three sorts of muscle: skeletal muscle which is associated to bone and makes a difference with deliberate development, smooth muscle which is found interior organs and makes a difference to move substances through organs, and cardiac muscle which is found within the heart and makes a difference pump blood. There are different diseases associated with each type of biological system. Parkinson’s Disease is a disorder that affects the nervous system, which can be treated with deep brain stimulations and Fibromyalgia is a disorder that affects the musculoskeletal system that can be treated with occipital nerve stimulation.

The nervous system is the arrangement of nerve cells and filaments which transmits nerve motivations between parts of the body It coordinates all activities of the body and permits the body to retort and adapt to changes each within and out. once the sensory input gets activated, from there your nervous system processes that input, and set what ought to be done regarding it that is named integration. After the integration, the motor output has a response that occurs when your nervous system activated certain parts of your body. One of the diseases that occur in the nervous system is called Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder in which dopamine-producing neurons of a brain structure called substantia nigra are damaged and died over time leading to several motor problems and mental disabilities. The substantia nigra is part of the basal ganglia whose major function is inhibit unwanted motor activities. When a person intends to make a movement, this inhibition is removed by the action of dopamine as dopaminergic neurons are progressively lost in PD patients, low levels of dopamine make it harder to initiate voluntary movements. The occasions driving to neuronal cell passing are ineffectively caught on but the nearness of Lewy bodies within the neurons some time recently die may offer a clue.

Parkinson’s disease has no cause, but in a few cases, there might be a genetic cause, like mutations in the PINK1, parkin, or alpha synuclein genes, and in rare cases Parkinsonian symptoms may be caused by MPTP. MPTP is a toxic impurity that can be found in the recreational drug MPPP or dimethylpyridine. In other people, one or more risk factors, rather than a single outright cause, might contribute to Parkinson’s, for example pesticide exposure or DNA variants in genes like LRRK2. Parkinson’s derive from the death of dopamine-producing or dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The substantia nigra is part of the basal ganglia, a collection of brain regions that control movement through their connections with the motor cortex. In Parkinson’s, these darkened areas of substantia nigra gradually disappear. The pars compacta are gradually affected during the disease. It sends messages to the striatum via neurons rich in the neurotransmitter’s dopamine, forming the nigrostriatal pathway, which helps to stimulate the cerebral cortex and initiate movement.

Substantia nigra neurons die; the individual may be in low movement state or a hypokinetic which is commonly seen in Parkinson’s. In addition to simply initiating movements, the substantia nigra helps to calibrate and fine tune the way that movements happen, which leads to clinical features of Parkinson’s. First there is tremor, which is an involuntary shakiness most noticeable in the hands. This is a resting tremor meaning it is present at rest and diminishes with intentional movement. Next there is rigidity, which refers to stiffness that can appear as “cogwheel” rigidity, which is when there are a series of catches or stalls as a person’s arms or legs are passively moved by someone else. Rigidity is also responsible for the stooped posture and an almost expressionless face. Another is Bradykinesia which could be a moderate move, hypokinesia is reduced moves, and akinesia which is an nonattendance of movement, and all three result from trouble starting developments. A late feature of the disease is postural instability which causes problems with balance and can lead to falls. Despite these multiple effects on movement Parkinson’s disease does not produce weakness.

Luckily, there are medicines that help with Parkinson’s side effects, in spite of the fact that none halt the dynamic neurodegeneration. The main strategy is to increase the amount of dopamine signaling in the brain. Dopamine itself cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, but its precursor levodopa can, and once in the brain, levodopa is converted into dopamine by dopa decarboxylase, most importantly within the remaining nigrostriatal neurons. Peripheral dopa decarboxylase also exists, which can metabolize levodopa into dopamine before it gets through the blood-brain barrier and via additional enzymes and metabolize into other catecholamines like epinephrine, which can use cause unwanted side effects like arrhythmias. Another strategy is using amantadine, which is also an antiviral medication that increases endogenous dopamine production. A special treatment available to help treat PD is deep-brain stimulation, which involved an implantable device that directly sends electrical signals to the basal ganglia which counteracts the aberrant signaling in Parkinson’s.

Deep-brain stimulation is an implant that is designed to electrical currents to target abnormal brain activity. The method triggers blood flow in a series of chemical reactions that leads to the release of certain neurotransmitters. Together this action help correct malfunctioning connections in the brain. Specialists use MRI’s and CT scans to map out and find the location in the brain where the implant will be located. Doctors then surgically implant electrodes on the targeted area of the patient’s brain. A wire attached to the electrode runs through the head, neck, and shoulder under the skin to the chest area where it attaches to a pulse generation that initiate electrical impulses. Doctors than turn on the electrode sending an electrical current to the brain. Once the Deep Brain Simulation is programmed correctly, it delivers continuous electrical stimulation day in and day out. A magnet is utilized with the IPG to alter the incitement parameters so that the fitting level of incitement is connected at the anode tip. The understanding is given with an get to control gadget or handheld magnet to turn the IPG on and off at domestic. Depending on the application, the battery can final three to five a long time. When the battery ought to be supplanted, the IPG is additionally supplanted, ordinarily beneath nearby anesthesia as an outpatient method.

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The advantages of deep brain stimulation over the old surgery which is where we would burn areas of the brain. Without burning the brain, we can make changes and reverse the problems that could have happen with doing the surgery with the old method you can only do it on one side, be able to treat one side of the body and you can adjust the stimulation. Deep-Brain stimulation implant smooths out what the medications are doing so you can have less off time and less peak dose dyskinesias. Deep Brain Stimulation is very secure and viable but there are a few dangers. There are moreover potential side impacts, although they are for the most part gentle and reversible. There's an assessed 2-3 percent hazard of brain hemorrhage that will either be of no importance or may cause paralysis, stroke, discourse impedance or other major issues. There's a little chance of spillage of cerebrospinal liquid, which can lead to cerebral pains or meningitis. Utilizing less energy is alluring for a few reasons. To begin with, it decreases the sum of battery substitutions and hence the sum of surgical mediations in patients treated with deep brain stimulation. More vitally, the event of stimulation-induced side impacts, such as dysarthria or paresthesia, is related to the control connected. Subsequently, decreasing incitement control may increment the helpful window, taking off more alternatives to the neurologist adjusting the Deep Brain Stimulation settings.

In Parkinson’s Disease, continuous open-loop stimulation can also end result in suboptimal manage of fluctuating motor signs, stimulation-induced destructive effects, and brief battery life. DBS ought to be notably improved via handing over closed-loop stimulation, in which stimulation parameters are automatically adjusted primarily based on Genius signals that reflect the patient's medical state. The subsequent boost in DBS remedy is to discover Genius alerts directly associated to disease signs and symptoms and symptoms and utilize them to automatically alter stimulation settings in accordance to changing intelligence needs (closed-loop control). Here, in sufferers with Parkinson's disease, they ought to leverage current advances in the appreciation of how Genius networks produce extraordinary movement, to strengthen and test closed-loop techniques the usage of a novel implantable brain system that can experience and shop brain activity, as nicely as deliver therapeutic stimulation.

Musculoskeletal system is made up of the cartilages, muscles, tendons, ligaments, bones, and ligaments that support the body. Th musculoskeletal system provides shape and support for your body. It provides a way that your body can move muscle pull on bones and therefore create the rigid structures that move. It provides protection on your skull which protects the brain and the ribcages protect your lungs and heart. It is also where blood cells are produced, and it provides a place to store minerals. One of the diseases in the musculoskeletal system is called Fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia refers to the pain in the fibrous tissue in the muscle. It is a chronic condition, which occurs more often in women, that causes widespread muscle pain, extreme tenderness in various parts of the body, and sleep disturbances. In Fibromyalgia, there are areas of tissue called “trigger points”. The brain perceives the tissue as being extremely tender, as if they are injured, when in fact, they are not. When pressed, like any other area of the body, these tender points send pressure signals to the spinal cord.

In fibromyalgia when these pressure signals arrive at the spinal cord, they are handled as if they are pain signals incoming from injured tissue rather than pressure signals from non-injured tissue. Thus, pressure signals from different parts of the body arriving at the spinal cord are sent up as if they are pain signals called nociceptors. This increases the pain signal activity sent up the spinal cord. What originally was sent as a non-painful signal is treated inside the spinal cord as a pain signal traveling up to those structures that deal with pain, causing a variety of pathologic changes. In addition, there is a decrease in the normal downward transmission of inhibitory signals, which means more and more pain signals get transmitted up the spinal cord. This results in even greater perception of pain at the brain cortex. Finally, the brain responds to this now permanent state of increased perception of pain by initiating various mechanism to protect the areas of perceived injury such as guarding and increasing muscle tension.

Fibromyalgia is a widespread chronic pain that debilitates the body, not letting the body function correctly. One of the treatments for this disease affecting the musculoskeletal system is neuromodulation. Neuromodulation is the application of electrical impulses to control brain activity. Fibromyalgia is treated with occipital nerve stimulation, which includes subcutaneous implantation of one or more anodes over the sensory nerves of cervical sections of the spine, found over the occiput of the cranium. The anodes provide electrical current to these shallow sensory nerves and are thought to impact torment handling and hence move forward torment side effects in patients with fibromyalgia. Incitement is ordinarily performed to begin with as a brief trial, amid which a terminal is percutaneously set with the utilize of fluoroscopy in an alert quiet in a surgical suite. Over the course of a few days, incitement is conveyed through an outside battery source. On the off chance that side effects of fibromyalgia-related head and generally body torments progress, at that point surgery is planned to forever embed the terminal and interface it to a battery source that's surgically embedded underneath the skin, comparative to a pacemaker gadget.

Studies examining the impact of occipital nerve implant for fibromyalgia have appeared noteworthy diminishes in torment visual analog scale scores as well as change in useful capacity amid incitement and at follow-up. Some of the results, ONS incitement brought about in enactment within the dorsal sidelong prefrontal cortex, comprising the average torment pathway, the ventral average prefrontal cortex, and the two-sided front cingulate cortex as well as Para hippocampal range, the last mentioned two of which include the plummeting torment pathway. Relative deactivation was watched within the cleared out somatosensory cortex, constituting the sidelong torment pathway as well as other tactile ranges such as the visual and sound-related cortex. One think about too illustrated critical enhancements in weariness per the altered weakness and affect scale, number of triggers focuses, and generally dismalness per the fibromyalgia compact survey. No genuine antagonistic occasions were detailed in these ponders. Some of the advantages of the implant is that a trial procedure is done with a fluoroscope or live x-ray for guidance, similarly to a full implant for you to see if it works and then invest in it. Another advantage is that there is no need to be hospitalized meaning it is an outpatient and it takes usually about two hours to get the implant done. Risks associated with occipital nerve stimulation encompass the viable want for surgical revision of wire placement after the procedure, as well as infection, ache and muscle spasms, which they are not always present in the patient.

Knowing how the human body works can help you treat disorders from their root no matter which biological system it may touch. Fibromyalgia and Parkinson’s disease are two diseases that has been affecting many people for years and the only way for them to be treated is by knowing what causes it. Fibromyalgia is caused by pain in the fibrous tissue in the muscle. It is a chronic condition, that causes widespread muscle pain, extreme tenderness in various parts of the body, and sleep disturbances. My knowing what it is, occipital nerve stimulation triggers the pain and the side effects that fibromyalgia causes to a patient and improves the condition of the patient. Parkinson’ disease is caused by dopamine-producing neurons of a brain structure called substantia nigra gets damaged and died over time leading to several motor problems and mental disabilities. By knowing which part of the body is being affected you may trigger Parkinson’s diseases with deep brain stimulation which releases certain neurotransmitters that together this action help correct malfunctioning connections in the brain.

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Disorders Affecting the Nervous and Musculoskeletal System. (2022, March 18). Edubirdie. Retrieved December 3, 2023, from
“Disorders Affecting the Nervous and Musculoskeletal System.” Edubirdie, 18 Mar. 2022,
Disorders Affecting the Nervous and Musculoskeletal System. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 3 Dec. 2023].
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