Down Syndrome: Coercion And Eugenics
- Topics: Eugenics
- Words: 642
- Page: 1
- This essay sample was donated by a student to help the academic community. Papers provided by EduBirdie writers usually outdo students' samples.
The purpose of this article is to sensitize the clinical genetics community to the issues of discrimination against children with Down syndrome and their families as discrimination represent economic and social coercion, in order to make attempts to provide non directive prenatal genetic counseling and provide postnatal care and counseling.
Down syndrome is a genetic chromosome 21 disorder causing developmental and intellectual delays.’ It causes a distinct facial appearance,, intellectual disability and developmental delays. It may be associated with thyroid or heart disease.
Discrimination leads to economic and social coercion that limit reproductive choice. It can be observed in many cases such as: A health insurance company informed a mother that they would only cover her baby if she underwent prenatal testing and terminated the pregnancy if the fetus was affected with Down syndrome.
The mother who felt her obstetrician was pressuring her to terminate her pregnancy by providing erroneous and highly negative information. Social stigmatization: The physician, who happens to be the mother of a baby with Down syndrome and whose colleagues wonder how this could happen. Mothers in Spain delivering an infant with Down syndrome received little or no information regarding this condition from their physicians
Parents tell us that the prenatal counseling they received was aggressively directive. for example, that the life expectancy of a child with Down syndrome born then was 3 years, when the data indicate it was approximately 50 years or more. It is difficult to infer intent, but this mother felt this archaic information was intended to have a direct and coercive influence on her choice, and many other families agree with her. This mother’s experience is not an isolated incident.
There has been discrimination against children with Down syndrome and their families, parents get directive suggestions during the prenatal stage. In order to take proper autonomic decision by parents they need non- judgmental guidance from professionals about eugenics, proper prenatal and postnatal awareness of children with Down syndrome. Parents needs to have the most up-to-date and accurate information regarding the potential and the quality of life for individuals with Down syndrome
Few mothers suggested strategies in order to have neutral and non-directive approach by clinical genetic professionals:
Training programs could improve the quality of information regarding Down syndrome presented to parents by Obstetrics and Gynecology and Pediatric residents.
Biopsychology analyzes how the brain, neurotransmitters, and other aspects of our biology influence our behaviors, thoughts, and feelings such as down syndrome affects intellectual and physical functioning. As Down syndrome is a genetic disorder which involve the genetic component of biology. The process of Eugenics involves biology as well as biopsychology. Eugenics involves Improving the qualities of the human species, by means of discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesirable traits (negative eugenics) or encouraging reproduction by persons presumed to have inheritable desirable traits (positive eugenics).
Prejudice and discrimination against individuals with Down syndrome continue today, including their families. There exist economic and societal influences before and after the birth of the child with Down syndrome. There have been reports by parents telling that the prenatal counseling they received was aggressively directive. For example, that the life expectancy of a child with Down syndrome born then was 3 years, when the data indicate it was approximately 50 years or more. It is difficult to infer intent, but this mother felt this archaic information was intended to have a direct and coercive influence on her choice, and many other families agree with her. This mother’s experience is not an isolated incident. Down syndrome is genetic it can happen to anybody’s fetus or newborn irrespective of caste, culture, profession, economic status etc.
“We used to think that our fate was in the stars, but now we know that our fate is in our genes,” said Dr. James Watson (After Darwin, 2005). Genes are the physical and functional fundamental units of heredity. Genes are a specific segment of DNA that determine our inherited traits. Every gene has two copies, one copy from each parent. A majority of genes are going to be the same in all humans except for a small amount. Alleles...
Introduction Eugenics is the philosophy and social movement that argues in favor of human advancement and engineering. Eugenics can be dated all the way back to 1883 with Sir Francis Galton who proposed being “well-born”, which is the idea of selective procreation with “desirable traits” (Genetics Generation, 2015). Eugenics is a highly debated topic and is somewhat frowned upon because of the actions taken in World War II and America. For example, Adolf Hitler was concerned with the concept of...
Eugenics and genetic improvements are practices that emerge from advancement in genetic understanding and that essentially seek to improve the human race. Eugenics particular is a practice that advocates for controlled human breeding where people with undesirable genetic or hereditary traits are prevented to mate and thus do not pass those traits onto others. genetic enhancement, on the other hand, is the practice of altering the genetic makeup of an individual, to give them desirable traits and take away those...
INTRODUCTION For this topic, I plan to discuss eugenics and the forced sterilization of women in the early 20th century. I plan to explain how mostly the disabled, immigrants, and minorities were targeted as well as the implications of that. I will explain the racist and ableist roots of this era of American history, and how it’s tied with the vision of “perfecting the human race”. Essentially to protect society to those deemed “inferior”. I also plan to discuss briefly...
The rise of eugenics was popularized with Francis Galton in the 19th century. Galton devoted much of his scholarly life to exploring variation in human populations and its implications. Galton established a research program which looked at variations in human populations: mental characteristics, height, facial images, fingerprint patterns, etc. This required inventing measures of traits, devising large-scale collection of data using those measures, and in the end, the discovery of new statistical techniques for describing and understanding the data. His...
In the 20th century, there was a period of murder and brutality that was brought on by the eugenics movement. This cruelty mainly occurred in Nazi controlled Germany during World War II, but the eugenics movement was quite strong in the United States of America as well. Eugenics is the controlled sexual or asexual reproduction of people to encourage people with good genes to reproduce while forcing people with bad genes to not reproduce. This idea, first developed by Sir...
Involuntary sterilization in the United states started with the Eugenics movement in early 20th century. Eugenics was a compulsory sterilization movement that was of decreasing non-favorable population, including disables, feeble-minded and non-Anglo people in US. (Barnett, 2004). Although the idea of manipulating human reproduction to improve the species has been traced back to Plato’s Republic (circa 368 BCE) and beyond, the word eugenics has a recent and precisely identifiable origin. (Barnett, 2004). In true Victorian style, Galton—a scientific polymath and...
Phrenology was a pseudoscience that aimed to study the size and shapes of skulls in order to determine one’s mental abilities, or lack thereof (Real Archaeology, 2017). This “science” was welcomed in the early 1800’s but it has since been refused by most scientists for at least the past 50 or 60 years. Even though we may reject it now, phrenology was used to confirm many racist beliefs in the 1800s and those beliefs are embedded in our society. There...
In the late 19th and early 20th century, Britain was seen as one of the strongest empires across the world; and was also spread with an imperialistic attitude which can be seen from the 20 year reign on the Conservatives which was the party of the empire. However, this imperialistic atmosphere within Britain was soon to be stopped by the questions caused as a consequence of the failure of the Boer War: What was Britain’s position in the world? The...
01 / 09
Fair Use Policy
EduBirdie considers academic integrity to be the essential part of the learning process and does not support any violation of the academic standards. Should you have any questions regarding our Fair Use Policy or become aware of any violations, please do not hesitate to contact us via firstname.lastname@example.org.
We are here 24/7 to write your paper in as fast as 3 hours.