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Drunk Driving: Critical Analysis and Summary of Relevant Sources

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Source 1: Drunk driving and the law

Koch, A. (2019). Drunk driving and the law – Driving under the influence in South Africa. [online] Insights into The Law in South Africa | Welcome to Go Legal. Available at: https://www.golegal.co.za/drunk-driving-law/ [Accessed 17 Feb. 2019].

Summary

In the article written by Alicia Koch, published by GoLegal, it was said that South Africa is the worst country in the world judging by the fact that South Africa has the highest percentage of Driving under the influence related road accidents sitting at 68% (Drunk and Driving related accidents of all accidents in South Africa) for the country and 28% of that is from Johannesburg. The legal limits, as stated by the South African Law is as followed: “Section 65 of the National Road Traffic Act 93 of 1996 (the “NRA”’) sets out the legal limits and prohibitions for driving whilst under the influence. It provides that no one shall drive or even occupy the driver’s seat of a motor vehicle (with the engine running) on a public road if their blood alcohol content is over the legal limit.” (Pulled from the article). The body’s processing time of one unit of alcohol takes approximately an hour, assuming you are over 68KG of weight. The approximate, most accurate breakdown of alcohol is as follows: 1 x 75 ml glass of wine = 1 unit, 1 x 250ml glass of wine = 3.3 units, 1 x shot/shooter = ½ unit in most instances, 1 x spirit cooler = about 1.25 units, 1 x beer = 1.5 units or possibly more, 1 x cider = 2 units, 1 x 25 ml tot of spirits = 1 unit, 1 x cocktail = Between 2 and 4 units.

There are no “quick fixes” to becoming sober, or to speed up the time your body takes to process the alcohol in your system. If you are found guilty of driving under the influence, there are various penalties that will be faced. They include 6-8 years imprisonment, R60 000 – R120 000 fine will need to be paid, your license could be suspended. Roadblocks are often conducted and if you are caught driving under the influence the process goes as follows: You will be arrested after a breathalyzer has been used and comes out positive. You will be detained. Blood will be taken to prove you are over the legal limit. Docket will be opened, and Court dates will be made. Bail offered, if not taken or paid, step 6 will be put into action. You will be sentenced. You will face the consequences as mentioned above. Use uber or have a designated driver. You could kill yourself, your loved ones, and other road users.

Value

This article just defines the South African Law regarding the Rules of the road and what the legal drinking limit is in South Africa. This will help me answer my question by proving what the legal drinking limit is, and what is acceptable. This article also defines what the consequences are.

Reliability

The findings in the article and the reasoning is that there are actual laws, and true facts based on Roadblocks and the consequences faced. Alicia started Alicia Koch Consulting in 2013, a move which has so far, proven very successful. She specializes in writing Crime articles based around the law. I trust this article and the author. She obtained her master’s in journalism in 2010 at the university of Cape Town.

Validity

The finding in this source are valid, after other article had been compared to this source, this source is valid, and can be confirmed by other sources.

Limitations

This source failed to provide information on the arrests made over the past two years and rather only on last year (2018). This source also failed to include information on how many fatalities were as a result of drunk driving in South Africa/Johannesburg.

Relevance to the topic

This source is extremely relevant to the chosen topic, as it informs the researcher/reader as to; what drinks are too strong and are over the limit, how long you need to stop drinking for after one has consumed an alcoholic beverage, what one would need to expect after being proven guilty, and how to face the penalty. There are tips on how to avoid the problem, such as Uber, and having a sober friend drive you home, as well as the consequences you will face.

This article has already proven that the findings in this in reality are valid and that there are serious consequences of driving over the legal drinking limit, and that death is one of the consequences, due to negligent and irresponsible driving on the roads of South Africa. This article has also told me what the percentage of accidents is caused by driving over the legal limit.

This source proves that drinking and driving does happen, in South Africa, and its provinces, espcially Gauteng.

Source 2: Drunken Drivers Needn’t Worry in South Africa.

VOA. (2019). Drunken Drivers Needn’t Worry in South Africa. [online] Available at: https://www.voanews.com/a/drunken-drivers-neednt-worry-south-africa/3305432.html [Accessed 17 Feb. 2019].

Summary

In this article written by Darren Taylor, he anonymously interviewed a Johannesburg Resident. He discussed what has happened in this man’s years of driving on the roads of Johannesburg. This man asked that he remains anonymous, because he had committed serious crimes in his past. He admits to driving under the influence of alcohol almost every Friday night, averaging around 5 beers and 2-3 shots of Tequila. He almost always drives well over the legal limit, but he is not worried. This man says that there is no reason to be worried about drunk driving in Johannesburg because “you can always talk or bribe your way out of it”. He claims to have often been stopped by cops and every time he has been drunk, but he says he just offers them a beer or gives them a few hundred rand to keep them quiet, and he says it always works. This man has been involved in 2 accidents after having a few drinks and he ended up waking up at home with blood on his clothes and a car missing from the garage, and he does not remember how any of that had happened, and when the police had questioned him, he blamed it on a friend and the incident was left there. We can refer to this man as “Van Rensburg” to keep his identity hidden. Van Rensburg later nonchalantly says he drives under the influence of liquor “all the time.” “Basically, it’s all a blank. Whatever you do, the way you drive — you don’t remember much.” (Taken directly from article.) He tells Darren that you can get away with drunk driving.

Value

This article proves that for some, there are no consequences of driving over the legal drinking limit. Here, we can see that people admit to drunk driving, but they know that there will be no penalty, or punishment, so they just carry on driving over the influence.

Reliability

The findings in this source are believable, because Police do take bribes and they are not all perfect, and road-users do offer bribes to police to “clear their name” from having a criminal record and from facing 6-8 years in jail, as stated by the South African law. This article is reliable, and it states that people do drink and drive, especially in South Africa, because they know that they can get away with it. This author works for VOA (Voice of America) News and is reliable.

Validity

After being involved in an accident, it is believable knowing that road users often pay bribes to “clear their name”. This source is seen as valid due to past experiences too.

Limitations

This articled failed to inform me on the arrests, and fatalities due to the negligent driving of drivers driving over the legal drinking limit in Johannesburg.

Relevance to the topic

This source is relevant to my topic because it proves that some people may be able to persuade the police to relieve them of all their charges while others are put in jail. This article is informative regarding that the South African Police are allowing people to operate a motor-vehicle under the influence of alcohol, by accepting such bribes, and allowing themselves to be persuaded by the road- users of Johannesburg. This also proves to me that there is a reason driving under the influence car accidents have risen in the past due to drunk drivers.

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Source 3: 2016/2017 Festive Season Statistics

SADD. (2019). 2016/2017 Festive Season Statistics. [online] Available at: http://sadd.org.za/20162017-festive-season-statistics/ [Accessed 17 Feb. 2019].

Summary

In this short article, it has been proven that road accidents have risen since 2017. Here, is an extract from the article: “South Africans Against Drunk Driving (SADD) are extremely concerned at the 5% increase in the death rate this(2018/2019 December/January) holiday season. Approximately 1 714 people died, which is the equivalent of 5 airplanes. This on top of the 15% increase last year (2017) means that there has been a 20% increase in 2 years. Alcohol abuse is responsible for at least 65% of these incidents, with 5943 of 9175 drivers being charged with drunk driving.” 65% is a large percentage, and this shows that more and more people are driving drunk.

Value

This article is valid as it comes directly from the Minister of transport, Sindisiwe Lydia Chikunga has got authority to her name and she are the highest person in command in this specific category and the statistics match the ones given in the report above. This article is just a summarized version of the speech that The Minister of Transport had delivered in 2017.

Reliability

This article is extremely reliable as the given information comes directly from the minister of Transport in South Africa, she is the one who receives all statistics on road accidents in South Africa, and she has seen that in Johannesburg there has been a rise in drunk driving over the past 2 years. Sindisiwe Lydia Chikunga is the ministers name.

Validity

This article has proved to be valid, because the minister of transport had delivered a speech addressing the road-users of Johannesburg that the government is extremely concerned that the people of south Africa are putting innocent people at risk by driving on the roads, drunk.

Limitations

The article did not include any information on how many reports were filled by the police and how many people actually faced the consequences after being caught driving over the legal drinking limit to be able to drive.

Relevance to the topic

This article and my findings are extremely relevant to my topic. This proves that the consequences in South Africa for driving over the legal drinking limit are either not serious enough, or they are not enforced upon those that commit the crime.

Source 4: JMPD officers refuse to take a R25 229,50 bribe.

Roodepoort Record. (2019). JMPD officers refuse to take a R25 229,50 bribe | Roodepoort Record. [online] Available at: https://roodepoortrecord.co.za/2018/11/02/jmpd-officers-refuse-to-take-a-r25-22950-bribe/ [Accessed 17 Feb. 2019].

Summary

In this article, 5 police officers in the Roodepoort area were working their night shift, when on Saturday night, November 2nd, 2018, a blue polo was driving in a very suspicious manor. The 5 police officers pulled the driver over, only to be immediately offered a R5000 bribe, R1000 for each officer. After the officers had turned the bribe down; the suspect raised his bribe to R25 229,50 to escape the police without facing any consequences. The man operating the vehicle had offered the officers a bribe thrice before being taken into the nearest police station. After further investigations, the male driving the blue polo had in fact been operating a stolen vehicle and without the officer’s integrity, this man would have escaped with a stolen vehicle. The officers have been rewarded and the suspect will be making his first appearance in court early 2019.

Value

This article adds value to the research question because it proves that not all officers accept bribes, be it big or small. There are loyal, and hardworking police officers that enforce the laws in Johannesburg.

Reliability

This source is reliable as it has been published on the Roodepoort record. This is a reliable news site for the Roodepoort. There is no author indicated int his article, but it has been well written judging by the use of diction and punctuation. This article is deemed reliable.

Validity

This article is not entirely valid as there is no listed author, and there are no articles to follow up with any new information. Although there is no author, the article was still published on a trusted news page, used by thousands of citizens of Roodepoort, and this site (Roodepoort record) often gives accurate information.

Limitations

This article fails to provide an author’s name and this leaves the reader a little bit skeptical about whether this article is valid or not.

Relevance to the topic

This article is extremely relevant as it informs the reader that not all police accept bribes, this is relevant to the chosen topic as it proves that not all police officers accept bribes, and the laws are enforced.

Conclusion

Upon researching several articles related to the consequences of drunk driving and whether or not they are properly enforced, I have concluded that the laws in South Africa regarding drinking and driving are not properly enforced and the people of Johannesburg often pay a bribe to “clear their names.”. There have been reports and cases where police are caught accepting and asking for bribes, and this just shows how corrupt and unfair the enforcement of the law is. I have concluded that the laws are not properly enforced in Johannesburg, by the JMPD (Johannesburg Metro Police Department).

Methodology

I am going to interview 80+ adult drivers, in and around the Johannesburg area, by the means of Facebook, Instagram, and Email. I will interview my parents, and their friends. I will create an anonymous survey on SurveyMonkey.com allowing people to safeguard their information, for the sake of their identity being kept from the public. I will use the people of Johannesburg as my primary resource.

  • This data will be collected to give an idea of how many people will admit to driving under the influence, and if any had bribed a traffic officer, whether they will anonymously admit to paying a bribe. This information is being collected to answer the chosen topic/question regarding driving under the influence.
  • Primary research will be conducted by the means of an online survey, it is an anonymous survey, it is there to give an idea as to whether people often drive under the influence, and how often bribes are paid and accepted.
  • The sources will be the road-users of Johannesburg, as well as a few JMPD officers and chief officer David Tembe will also be asked to fill out a separate survey regarding his past experiences with being offered bribes, and how he handled the situations.
  • Aimed: 80, but 100 answered surveys is the target.
  • The data will be collected online and captured via Survey Monkey.
  • The data will be collected personally but kept on Survey Monkey.
  • This will allow for people to share the survey by URL and more people would be able to complete the survey. All answers are also sent directly to a personal account.
  • This is how the survey will look: (An appropriate screenshot will be inserted upon creation)

Ethical Issues

The research done and my question asked will only disadvantage those that drive under the legal drinking limit and those that pay and accept bribes. Data will be collected daily, there is only one option to anonymously insert data. There is a possible risk that if people answer the survey it is not done anonymously and this will create a large risk for the participant, it could put their work and social life at risk. All documents will be kept with personally and they will not be published anywhere. The participants will either have the choice of filling the survey in, or they could just leave the survey out and not fill them out. This data will be captured in percentages. This will determine the what the most dominant answer is. The anonymity is catered for, and for their sake it will remain anonymous. The data will be kept safe, in a secure environment, in a folder, and shredded upon completion of this task. The findings are a true account of the result.

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Drunk Driving: Critical Analysis and Summary of Relevant Sources. (2022, August 12). Edubirdie. Retrieved November 29, 2022, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/drunk-driving-critical-analysis-and-summary-of-relevant-sources/
“Drunk Driving: Critical Analysis and Summary of Relevant Sources.” Edubirdie, 12 Aug. 2022, edubirdie.com/examples/drunk-driving-critical-analysis-and-summary-of-relevant-sources/
Drunk Driving: Critical Analysis and Summary of Relevant Sources. [online]. Available at: <https://edubirdie.com/examples/drunk-driving-critical-analysis-and-summary-of-relevant-sources/> [Accessed 29 Nov. 2022].
Drunk Driving: Critical Analysis and Summary of Relevant Sources [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Aug 12 [cited 2022 Nov 29]. Available from: https://edubirdie.com/examples/drunk-driving-critical-analysis-and-summary-of-relevant-sources/
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