This study investigated how E-Learners perception about YouTube as a media in learning. YouTube has become a closest internet website for learners in this century. This study also combined several research perception to be an evidence that YouTube can integrated with learning process. Learners’ perception be a main consideration in this study. This research obtain the data by a questionnaire which contains 4 questions about E-Leaning and YouTube. Their answers will analysed by using Google form. After all, this study will consider data from mean, media, rate, diagrams and percentage of the data. This study shown the result suitable with the expectation of this study.
In this era, learners generally called as Gen Z or generation Z because they were born between 2000 until now. They also known as ‘Digital Natives’ because they were born in digital era. Students who classified as Gen Z are born in the era where technology usage are able to applicate in many aspects of life. They used to face the world by using electronic media in order to solve their problems. They are the true digital natives. They already provided with variants of electronic media since they were babies such as mobile phone, computer, and internet. They also more adaptable with visual ability and more shaped to create visual form of learning. So, in order to find creative and constructive ways for teaching learners in generation Z, integrating technology in teaching more powerful than lecturing them. According to Bouros, Maramba & Wheeler (2006) Many studies showed that the integration of such social media tools has a positive impact on teaching and learning by allowing teachers to actively involve learners by creating knowledge, sharing, and collaborating in the learning process. Moreover, Moran, Seaman, and Tinti-Kane (2011) investigated how today’s higher education faculty use social media for teaching, learning, and sharing, discovering that social media sites can be valuable tools for collaborative learning. Their results showed that online videos from sites such as YouTube are valuable tools for teaching. In other words, using electronic tools is the appropriate way to teach them. According to (Berk, 2009) there are 20 potential learning outcomes to ponder by using video clip, those are:
- Grab’s students’ attention
- Focus’ students concentration
- Generate interest in class
- Create a sense of anticipation
- Energize or relax students for learning exercise
- Draw on students’ imagination
- Improve attitudes toward content and learning
- Build a connection with other students and instructor
- Increase memory of content
- Increase understanding
- Foster creativity
- Stimulate the flow of ideas
- 13. Foster deeper learning
- Provide an opportunity for freedom of expression
- Serve as a vehicle for collaboration
- Inspire and motivate students
- Make learning fun
- Set an appropriate mood or tone1
- Decrease anxiety and tension on scary topic, and
- Create memorable visual images
Those potential learning outcomes investigated by Berk (2009) in two section which are Videos and the brain and multimedia learning
According to Nation (2001), second language learners need to know very large numbers of words as this may be useful for them in the long-term as learning vocabulary should not be a short-term goal. It means that students need many resources that they can used for very long time. The resources come from people who have different background and the way they present their material in the videos so it might be interest students to learn from them. Videos started to use from very long time ago. According to (Berk, 2009) Using videos in teaching is not new. In prehistoric times, cave instructors used 16mm projectors to show cave students examples of insurance company marketing commercials in business courses. Now, even the DVD players are old fashion. Berk (2009) stated that there are four areas that changes in producing video, those are: (a) the variety of video formats, (b) the ease with which the technology can facilitate their application in the classroom, (c) the number of videos techniques an instructor can use, (d) the research on multimedia media learning that provides the theoretical and empirical support for their use as an effective teaching tool. So, in this case, teachers nowadays need to use resource that provide many videos based on those areas. Moreover, according to (Berk, 2009) a video can have a strong effect on your mind and senses. YouTube provide variety of videos and audios which come from many people who have their own experience and knowledge. Even, YouTube provides not just the material for the students, it provides teacher many techniques in teaching, methods that performed by people from different countries.
Furthermore, According to Padmadewi, Artini & Nitiasih (2017) in today’s era of education, every student should have and acquire the skills of 21st century as mentioned in the framework for 21st century learning. They debate that the framework describes the skills, knowledge, and competencies that students need in order to reach successful in their career. Students have to master 3 classifications of skills in 21st century learning such as life and career skills, learning and innovation skills, and information, media, and technology skills. Those 3 classification has sub-skills in every classification, life and career skills covers flexibility and adaptability, initiative and self-direction, social and cross-cultural skill, productivity and accountability, leadership and responsibility. Learning and innovation skills are creativity and innovation, critical thinking and problem solving, communication and collaboration. The last one is information, media and technology skills are information literacy, media literacy, ICT- information, communication and technology literacy. Concerning of those classification of skills, teacher and student should have to implement any kind of media and technology in their teaching and learning process.
As discussed before, in order teach students in 21st century or we used to call them as Gen Z, integrating technology in teaching are more powerful rather than lecturing them. Bouros, Maramba & Wheeler (2006) Stated that many studies showed that the integration of such social media tools has a positive impact on teaching and learning by allowing teachers to actively involve learners by creating knowledge, sharing, and collaborating in the learning process. Furthermore, Moran, Seaman, and Tinti-Kane (2011) investigated how today’s higher education faculty use social media for teaching, learning, and sharing, discovering that social media sites can be valuable tools for collaborative learning. E-Learning is the most suitable approach to conduct this theories. Mayes and de Freitas (2007) emphasize that E-learning is the enhancement of existing models of learning which use technology to achieve better learning outcomes (“How do people learn?,” 2005). So, in this case, E-learning is an update from every models in teaching which more effective to be implemented in 21st century.
After all, the media for conducting e-learning are variant. People tend to use a handheld device such as PDAs (personal device assistant) since they were able to connect with network and access what they need anytime and anywhere. Tomlinson (2009) stated that in Africa, mobile users account for 83 per cent of telephone subscribers, a higher proportions than any other countries in the world. South Africa leads the continent in mobile penetration with 36.4 mobile phones per 100 population. It proves that the use of mobile phones already spread into South Africa’s areas. According to (Nezarat & Mosavi Miangah, 2012), Mobile learning is characterized by its potential for learning to be spontaneous, informal, personalized and ubiquitous. They also claimed that Mobile learning tends to use today’s mobile device such as PDA’s, phone, and other handheld devices. In learner daily activities, mobile phone becomes a crucial part of their life. They used it almost in every schedules such as video chat, short message, listening to audio, watching movies, web surfing, shopping and the like. Notice from their habits, students tends to use portable devices to learn new materials rather than taking a lot of time for traditional classroom based courses. Moreover, mobile phone can be the shortcut for increasing their skill in English as a second language. For examples vocabulary, listening, grammar, phonetics, and reading comprehension. Furthermore, (Nezarat & Mosavi Miangah, 2012) state that learning through the mobile phone or m-learning provides the learners with the opportunities to learn although they are in outside of the classroom. They also claimed that among all of the tools that are used in education, mobile phone are the most powerful modern communication devices.
This data is a quantitative data. The techniques that would be used are interview and survey to collect data among participants. This technique first introduced by Kaufman & Gupta (1998) and called The Fuzzy Delphi technique (Dewitt, Alias, Siraj, 2013). The Delphi technique used to obtain data from several experts, but we used this technique to collect data from several participants. The first phase to obtain the data is conducting the interview. According to Noraini Idris (2010) in the semi-structured interview process, the questions were formulated in advance, but the sequence and modification of the question were made based on participants’ reactions (Dewitt, Alias, Siraj, 2013). In this case, the first question will directly to the topic. The data which obtained from the previous interview will be used to develop questionnaire which will be used to survey the participants’ opinions. The media that used is Google form. The sample comprises of 34 English Language Education’s students from Ganesha University of Education. After all, the data will automatically analysed by Google form by showing means, median, range, diagrams and percentage of the results.
Based on the data above, in the first question, 33 participants filled in the ‘yes’ column and 1 participant filled in the ‘no’ column. In the second question, 30 participants filled in the “yes” column and 4 participants filled in “no” column. In the third question, 31 participants filled in the “yes” column and 3 participants filled in “no” column. The statistics shown that above 90% participants give a good responses on integrating YouTube as a media in learning process. Moreover, most of the participants’ reasons because they are familiar with YouTube. (Berk, 2009) stated that a video can have a strong effect on your mind and senses. Based on the participants’ reason, they already feel excited with this study which discuss about integrating YouTube with E-Learning. In their perception, YouTube are suitable with learning process nowadays because they already know the media since they were know that YouTube has many materials that they want to explore. YouTube brings the material differently with book that usually used in traditional classroom. (Berk, 2009) emphasized that all courses that use a video clips as an instructional tool brings their students to experience the powerful cognitive and emotional impact.
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
Like others media and tools, conducting E-Learning activities with YouTube are interested for Gen Z as our target in 21st century. Moreover, the participants in this study claimed that they can achieve 4 skills by watching videos from YouTube, those four skills are reading, speaking, listening, and writing. This study show the engagement of the learners nowadays that they tend to use technology device to learn something rather than sit on the conventional classroom. This is a good chance to spread E-Learning to all learners in 21st century and future teacher to construct their knowledge about teaching their students in future. With so many videos that be able to access by learners, they will never stop to learn something new. Since YouTube established in 2005, YouTube is the most successful internet website providing a new generation of short video sharing service (K, 2007). That is why YouTube known by all learners nowadays and they have a good point of view when E-Learning tend to use YouTube as a learning media.
In view of the limitation in this study have come across, that would be good if there is a chance to conduct a further research with bigger sample size. Further research will obtain more data, findings, and enable to draw a bigger concrete conclusion with E-Learners’ perceptions about YouTube as a media in learning. The period of the study need to be expanded in order to get more valid data, concrete conclusion and clear perceptions from many more participants. Further research need more efforts to get more data and valuable findings.
In this era, learners need to be wise using internet website. Expanding their knowledge by watching educating videos will be a greater chance to spread the belief that using YouTube for learning is valuable and powerful media to educate themselves. In this study, learners are expected to learn anytime and anywhere, not just in the classroom, wherever they want to fill themselves with knowledge, they are able to access what they need. Their intention is also important, with this flexibility, they are expected to grow their intention to learn more and more. YouTube has become the most successful internet website providing a new generation of short video sharing service. Time to time, it will provides more features that can be accessed and used by learners in positive way.
Moran, Seaman, and Tinti-Kane (2011) investigated how today’s higher education faculty use social media for teaching, learning, and sharing, discovering that social media sites can be valuable tools for collaborative learning. As a perspective teacher, adapting ourselves with technology will provide many styles, techniques and method in teaching. Variants in teaching are important, YouTube provides many material that needed to upgrade the way in teaching. Collaborate videos from YouTube in lesson plan may be a good plan for teacher, according to (Berk, 2009) videos are used for teaching already conducted in prehistoric times when a cave instructor use a video to show cave students the example of insurance company and marketing commercial. So, teaching with videos already conducted from long time ago. The good thing is, videos nowadays has far better quality. As a perspective teacher, it is a good chance to maximize the use of YouTube videos to develop their lesson plan.
- Abdelraheem, A. Y., & Ahmed, A. M. (2015). Electronic Social Media in Teaching: Usages, Benefits, and Barriers as Viewed by Sudanese Faculty Members. American International Journal of Social Science, 4( 5),58-68. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Abdelrahman_Ahmed13/publication/289433429_Electronic_Social_Media_in_Teaching_Usages_Benefits_and_Barriers_as_Viewed_by_Sudanese_Faculty_Members/links/5980672baca272d5681dcf26/Electronic-Social-Media-in-Teaching-Usages-Benefits-and-Barriers-as-Viewed-by-Sudanese-Faculty-Members.pdf (Retrieved in 5 May, 2017)
- National.republika.co.id. Available at: http://nasional.republika.co.id/berita/nasional/daerah/18/01/05/p2288x423-bali-mulai-terapkan-elearning.Cited on February, 20, 2018.
- Miagah, T. M., & Nezarat, A. (2012). Mobile-Assisted Language Learning. International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems. 3(1), 309-319. Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2902/cf4ef0284cb407e986ec2cbed96c7ddbfeb8.pdf (Retrieved in May, 5, 2017)
- Padmadewi, N. N., Artini, L. P., & Nitiasih, P. K. (2017). Techniques for building character and literacy for 21stcentury education.
- Berk, R. A. (2009). 2009_Video, 5, 1–21.
- Dewitt, D., Alias, N., Siraj, S., Yaakub, M. Y., Ayob, J., & Ishak, R. (2013). ScienceDirect The potential of Youtube for teaching and learning in the performing arts, 103, 1118–1126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.439