Gender Equality in the Philippines
As of the recent report of Global Gender Gap Index of the World Economic Forum, the Philippines has decreased for about three spots from its original position, which is 7th place, as one of the gender-equal countries in the world for the earlier years. Despite of being slipped down, the country still abides in the top 10. This situation is because of the wage inequality which happened for similar works. Although unemployment rates occur more quickly on women than for men, according to Philippine Institute for Development Studies, authors of the study stated that unemployment rate is not invariably indicative on the working situations of women. This statement was becoming more strengthened, for authors of the study stated that women who participate the labor force have the same opportunities in terms of economic opportunities like men. Inequality and prejudice in the field of work is present in the Philippines regarding that 76 percent of female respondents in the Philippines according to a report by HR in Asia admitted that they experience it in the workplace. Additionally, 17 percent of the respondents were conceded for being asked about their wants to build a family as they are having an interview. (P. Ladrido, 2018)
Causes of Sex Discrimination in the Workplace
In male-dominated companies such as the auto industry, women are having a less opportunities which can lead to under-representation of woman. It can be considered as one of the primary causes of sex discrimination in the field of work. In the situation under male-dominated industry, men are not that open to view women as an individual who can carry the same work or responsibilities as well as men. This kind of mindset can create a conflict between employees which can leads to a negative environment on work, (S. Quian, 2019).
As cited by M. King (2019), according to the Randstad US, Women in the Workplace 2018 report, the primary cause of having inequality in the field of work is the unequal pay. As of the report based on the survey of over 700 men and women in the United States, it founded out that all females who are in the labor force do not believe that there is a fair distribution of salary compared to their male counterparts. For every dollar that males received, women in the United States had received 79 cents. As a result, the retaining of women in the workplace is such a big question.
Effects of Sex Discrimination in the Workplace
According to K. H. Sullivan (2016), sex discrimination may lead to lost of productivity. It occurs when employees who were dealing with sex discrimination didn’t give their full attention at work, for they were too preoccupied about the discriminationhappening to them. As a result, they are able to give work may be significantly diminished. In addition, high employee turnover can be also a product of sex discrimination at workplace. It is where employees who do not leave may be overburdened or distracted by having to train replacement employees. Lastly, sex discrimination may lead to damaged morale, which can also lead to widespread discontent throughout the workplace.
Sex discrmination has an effects toward employees. Vulnerable workers are less likely to report discrimination and may keep working through them. Young workers not likely to speak up about safety issues when fearing hostility. In addition, discrimination could lead to disgruntled employees, (K. Matthews, 2019).
Sex discrimination affects the employees itself and even the overall performance of the company or industry in terms of economic development. Including on one of the negative impacts of gender discrimination in the workplace is the increasement of depression and anxiety regarding on individual’s mental health. The effect of the harassment can also be felt by other employees on that certain work. So, the whole group can be affected by gender inequality. Additionally, sex discrimination may also be a factor of the increasing levels of stress. Employees experiencing this become tardy due to problems regarding their health. Because of this, the insurance cost for employers will be increasing. Moreover, employees experiencing this kind of harassment decreased the level of his or her satisfaction towards work. Also, inequality leads to harassment. Victims are afraid of raising their concerns because they believe that no one will hear their complaints. On the other hand, gender discrimination can be extended to public which can be a primary cause of a certain company or industry to have a bad reputation, (P. Trevino, 2018).
Where is Sex Discrimination Most Common
In a survey, it is founded that gender discrimination in the workplace is still abundant. Aged between 16-30 females with a percentage of almost 23 have been experiencing sexual harassment at work. As of the poll for Young Women’s Trust, only 8% from 23% had raised their concerns about the harassment itself. The women is having a fear of losing their job or fear of diminishing the time of their work, and these are the reasons why they are not taking any action regarding the harassment they were experiencing. On the other hand, 19% of young women stated that they received a lesser amount of salary than males for a similar job. Compared with 42% of men, 52% of young women stated that gender discrimination has a negative effect towards the individual’s mental health, (H. Siddique, 2018).
Women’s gains in the labor involvement, salaries and access to more profitable jobs have reinforced their place in American workforce over the previous several years. Nevertheless, there is gender imbalance in the workplace and females who report having more males than females in their workplace have a very distinct set of experiences than their counterparts on workplaces that are mostly female or even have a mixture of males and females. According to Pew Research Center study, a majority of females (48%) stated that their work in locations where there are more females than males, while 18% say there are more males than females in their place of work. Similarly, 44% of males say that their workplace is predominantly male, and 19% admitted that females outnumber males. Approximately one-third of females (33%) and males (36%) stated that both genders are equally represented in their workplace. The study-undertaken in 2017, prior to the last outcry about male sexual harassment in prominent roles- discovered that females in majority-male workplaces are more likely to say that their sex has made it more difficult for them to move forward at job. Women are less likely to be treated fairly in staff matters and report considerably greater levels of gender discrimination. Furthermore, while about half of female who say that their workplace is mostly male (49%) say that sexual harassment is an issue where they work, much lower proportion of females who work mostly in female workplaces (32%) say the same. Overall, most men (67%) and women (68%) stated that their gender did not make a big difference in their work achievement. But for some employees, it does create a difference, and females are about three times as probable as males (19% vs. 7%) to say that their sex has made it difficult for them to succeed in their work. Responses differ considerably among females depending on their workplace gender balance. Only 13 percent of those who say they work primarily with other females say their sex has made working success more difficult for them. By comparison, 34 percent of those who say they work primarily with males say they have had a adverse effect on their gender. 19 percent say their gender has made it difficult for them to succeed among those who operate in more balanced setting, (K. Parker, 2018).
Workplace Discrimination Based on Position
According to J. Thompson (2019), for an instance, if employees know that they’re pitted against each other, they may experience beating others out the competition through expressing unethical behavior. For the low performers, they are worried to ask others to assist for help because competition makes people focus on their tasks and don’t want to disturb on what they are doing. As a result, employees are having the tendency to not improve and stop doing their best to the job itself.
Managers tend to perform higher than employees with lower rank. It is the responsibility of the manager to know the performance of several people. The failure of several people in a certain company may be blamed to managers; thus, top employees like managers may experienced a hostile work environment. (S. McBride, 2014).
Age Discrimination in the Workplace
Age discrimination is such a real situation happening in the workplace. Between ages 45-74 workers, they have seen age discrimination as a real situation in the places of their work, while people who finds job over age 35 had founded out that age discrimination is considered as the most dominant obstacle to get hired in a specific work. The chances to experience age discrimination will be getting higher if an employee will apply on the high-tech or entertainment industries. There are many significant facts an individual should know about discrimination when based on age. It includes that according to law, age discrimination is a form of illegal act considering any employment stage. Next is, gender differs in the perception of discrimination based on age. Between the ages of 45 and 74 women, they stated that people experience age discrimination at work, but only 57 percent of men with the similar age range said so, (K. Palmer, 2017).