Many people are getting killed in road accidents daily and it has become one of the major concerns for the whole world. According to WHO about 1.25 million people die in road crashes each year, on average 3,287 deaths a day and an additional 20-50 million are injured or disabled. The motivation behind this work is an attempt to make an Arduino based IOT system for real-time monitoring of speed and which aware people about the speed of the vehicle before they cross the road and keep them safe and secure from road accidents. This paper targets to propose an IOT system, which detects speed of the vehicles using various sensors and other components and activate the buzzer if the speed of the vehicle is over a specific speed limit and immediately report to concerned authorities. The main reason for many road accidents is due to speed violation. The main objective of this project is to detect the speed of a vehicle in school zones and to alert people by means of the alarm if it is over speed.
The Microcontroller unit acts as a monitoring and control unit. The IR sensor can be used to sense the speed of the vehicle using the angle of reflection from the infrared light. Depending on the speed of the vehicle the intensity of the LED light increases for over speed and decrease for lower speed. The sensor steers the alarm to alert people during necessary conditions through the MCU. The control unit is programmed in such a way that when there is an alarm, the corresponding gates of the school gets closed.
Keywords: Arduino board, IR sensor, alarm, LEDs, automated doors.
The present world is advancing at the speed of light in the field of trade and business, and the development in technology has been significantly influencing this growth. However, transportation by road is one of the major factors that have been affecting the commercial development of our country. With the increasing vehicular population and their movement on the roads, accidents are also steadily increasing. It has become a nightmare for the authorities to prevent or reduce such fatal accidents on the road and all their efforts are in vain. According to the Indian road accidents survey, every year there are more than 135,000 incidents of road accidents. Out of these, most of them are due to rash driving. According to Indian Constitution, IPC section 279 rash driving is an offence. Nowadays we hear news about accidents on Highways very frequently. And in most of the cases main reason of accident is over speed. Although all highways do have signboards indicating maximum speed limit for the sake of driver’s safety, but still people do not obey highway speed limit. The project mentioned here is “Speed checker and over speed detector for Highways”.
The IoT (Internet of Things) is the interrelation of distinctly identifiable embedded computing appliances inside the existing infrastructure. IoT provides sophisticated connectivity of systems, services and devices, which goes beyond M2M (Machine to Machine Interactions) and covers different domains and applications. This interrelation of embedded appliances like smart objects is implemented in all automation enabling modern applications such as Smart Grid. Nowadays IOT has become integral part for security purpose and IOT- oriented technology can provide effective solution for above problem.
The target of this paper is to propose and develop a System for detecting over-speed using IOT technology. This system will be very beneficial for human life as accidents are occurring every day. It has a major objective of exercising road discipline speed control and it tracks vehicles breaking traffic rules. This paper presents Vehicle Speed Control in Variable zone. The speed of the vehicle is controlled in area such as flyovers, bridges, highways, schools, cities and suburbs. In addition, this paper concentrates on various methods for controlling the over speeding and it also explains the technical working of the IOT system and its benefits. It will provide deep insights on this topic for future researchers.
This project is designed and developed by taking into consideration the problem mentioned above. We have used two sensors in this project. These sensors detect the vehicle speed. Condition is that, the two sensors should be installed at a distance of 27 cm apart from one another. The project also has a Buzzer. Over speed condition is indicated by turning on the Buzzer. The proposed system will check on rash driving by calculating the speed of a vehicle using the time taken to travel between the two set points at a fixed distance. The speed is calculated using the MCU. When there is an alarm due to speed violation the corresponding gate of the school gets closed.
This system will be very beneficial for human life as accidents are occurring every day. It has a major objective of exercising road discipline speed control and it tracks vehicles breaking traffic rules. This paper presents Vehicle Speed Control in Variable zone. The speed of the vehicle is controlled in area such as flyovers, bridges, highways, schools, cities and suburbs. In addition, this paper concentrates on various methods for controlling the over speeding and it also explains the technical working of the IOT system and its benefits. It will provide deep insights on this topic for future researchers.
2. LITERATURE SURVEY
A paper based on Rash Driving Alert System discusses the usage of IoT and its extended uses. Being an open source and end- user programming it helps people in sharing their knowledge in IoT with data, valued resources and functionalities. Thus, making it more useful as IoT has evolved from convergence of wireless technologies, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), micro-services and the Internet. The convergence has helped in collaboration between operating technologies (OT) and information technology (IT) allowing machine-generated data to be analysed for improvements.
The authors have designed an embedded system to bring a positive difference in the field of road safety and road discipline using MQ3 Alcohol sensor, RF TX/RX Module with Arduino UNO. The system is designed to be fixed in passenger vehicle. This model consists of two modules: Transmitter and Receiver Section. Receiver module will be placed on the car and the Transmitter module can be fitted on a sign board. Following are the circuit diagram details: To transmit the information, RX TX module is needed. In this circuit, 433 Mega Hertz frequency transmitters is being used. Parameters: ASK modulation and transmission range is 100-300 square feet (10-15 feet).
The proposed system components are MMA7361L 3D accelerometer, INA333 instrumentation amplifier, LM358 operational amplifier, DSC TMS320F28027, microcontroller MSP430G2553 and LM1117 voltage regulator. The software tools include Code Composer Studio v5 and MATLAB 2010a. The output of the accelerometer is analog data which is in the range of 0 volts to 3.3 volts. This output is then amplified and filtered and converted into digital data (12 bit) using the on-chip analog to-digital (ADC) converter of TMS320F28027. The system is designed to detect rash driving and over-speed and it may in future be able to work electronically. This system design is complex and more expensive.
The authors have designed the system using VANET and IoT. It is aimed is mitigate road accidents caused by drink-driving and over-speeding on SA roads. Furthermore, it is also aimed at ensuring that traffic officers’ lives are not exposed to health hazards as currently experienced. The system is expected to operate in real-time manner to detect both drink-driving and over-speeding. In particular, the IoT is employed via sensors in vehicles which senses driver’s breath and over-speed inside the vehicle and communicate the information using VANET and IoT technologies to traffic officers in real-time. To realize this, an application was developed that allows traffic officers on duty to view drink-driving and over-speeding offenders in real-time as displayed on the traffic map. For working of this system Internet is mandatory as it stores data in cloud which may not be possible in every location.
The authors have designed the IOT system using Arduino UNO and they have built a speed app using Radar and deployed Google maps, GPS module and also designed Speed Detection System and they have integrated both of them together to form a working system which will track the vehicle using GPS and Google Maps in case of traffic rules violations. The experiment results of this proposal showed that it is the best in its kind in providing better alerts and can detect more type of misdriving when compared to normal driving skills. They can be used to minimize the road accidents by alerting and warning them regarding their driving styles and also sends message alerts to their guardians.
The motivation behind this project is an attempt to make an embedded system to make difference in road discipline. The project works to overcome some major road problems like speed control in various zones, breaking traffic rules, drink and drive cases, etc. The hardware components used for this project are encoder chip, decoder chip, transmitter and receiver module, Arduino controller, relay, alcohol detector and LCD display and also Arduino software to achieve their aim. The results obtained are very satisfactory and their implementation brings revolutionary changes as it would be easy to identify the culprit. It also increases the road safety. The main constrain in this is the weather conditions as rain, snow decrease the microwave radio frequency absorption. The future scope for this can be increased with the use of Radar Vision Fusion technology and avoid collisions.
These are major sources for the development of this project. These ideas have been taken as the base and improvised further according to the need. This project concentrates mostly on avoiding road accidents in school areas. It is achieved by using IR sensors to detect the speed, relay to drive the doors close with the help of instruction given from the Arduino controller.
3. SCOPE OF PRESENT WORK
Vehicle speed detection can be extended widely by setting GPS to identify the zones. The other way of extending this project is with the help of DME5000-312 sensor module which can be used in the distance range of 300 to 500 m. We can also modify the system with efficient braking system in association with airflow control to the carburetor. This system can be more effectively used for any kind of automobiles such as Lorries, buses, cars, bikes, etc. They can also be extended to other zones like hospitals, no horn areas, etc. It can also be implemented in detecting drunk and drive cases as well.
IoT is internet working of vehicles, physical devices and other items such as actuators, software, electronics, network connectivity and sensors, which allow these objects to gather and exchange data. The IoT permits objects to be controlled and/or sensed remotely across the network infrastructure, generating opportunities for more direct incorporation of the physical world into computer-oriented systems and ensuing in enhanced accuracy, effectiveness and financial benefit. It is obvious that IoT will contain very huge volume of devices that being linked to the Internet. The capability to network embedded tools with limited memory, CPU and power resources signifies that IoT detects applications in almost every field. Such kind of systems might be used for gathering information in settings that sorting from natural environments to factories and buildings, thereby identifying applications in urban planning and environmental sensing fields.
4. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
4.1 ARDUINO UNO
Arduino is a single-board microcontroller that is more interactive and is used to make it more accessible for the applications and its surroundings. It has various features like an open source hardware board designed with an 8-bit AtmelAVR microcontroller or a 32-bit Atmel ARM. The used in this project consists of a USB interface, 6 analog input pins and 14 digital I/O pins which allows in attaching various extension boards.
The Arduino UNO board is a microcontroller based on the ATmega328. It has 14 digital input/output pins out of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs, a 16 MHz ceramic resonator, an ICSP header, a USB connection, 6 analog inputs, a power jack and a reset button. Arduino UNO has all the support required by the microcontroller. Interfacing is done by simply connecting the board to the computer using a USB cable or an AC-to-DC adapter or a battery. This board is different from all other boards and does not use the FTDI USB-to-serial driver chip in them. It is featured by the ATmega16U2 (ATmega8U2 up to version R2) programmed as a USB-to-serial converter.
4.2 IR SENSOR
An infrared sensor is an electronic device that emits in order to sense some aspects of the surroundings. An IR sensor can measure the heat of objects as well as detects the motion. An infrared sensor circuit is one of the basic and popular sensor modules in an electronic device. This sensor is analogous to human’s visionary senses, which can be used to detect obstacles in a single lane roadway.
This circuit comprises of the following components:
- LM358 IC 2 IR transmitter and receiver pair
- Resistors of the range of kilo ohms.
- Variable resistors.
- LED (light Emitting Diode).
4.2.1 Working of IR sensor:
IR Sensors are the main part of the project that detects the speed of the car. Here we have used two reflective type IR sensors and placed them in a certain cm apart. When a car travelling reaches the IR sensor 1, the IR sensor gets activated. From this moment onward, timers are initiated and keep counting until the car reaches the IR Sensor 2. By simulating between the two sensors, you can calculate the speed at which the car traveled from IR sensor 1 to IR sensor 2 which gives the speed of the car.
Relay is an electromagnetic switch operated by relatively small electric current that can turn on or off a much larger electric current. The heart of the relay used here is an electromagnet (a coil of wire that becomes a temporary magnet when electricity flows through it). We can think of a relay as an electric lever, that is, it gets activated with a tiny current and it switches on other appliances which require a much bigger current.
Electromechanical Relays: basic parts and functions of electromechanical relays include:
- Frame: Heavy-duty frame that contains and supports the parts of the relay.
- Coil: Wire is wound around a metal core. The coil of wire causes an electromagnetic field.
- Armature: A relays moving part. The armature opens and closes the contacts. An attached spring returns the armature to its original position.
- Contacts: The conducting part of the switch that makes (closes) or breaks (opens) a circuit.
5. SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION
5.1 Arduino UNO
The Arduino integrated development environment (IDE) is an application written using Java. This is derived from the IDE for utilizing it in the Processing programming language and the Wiring projects. The Arduino board can be programmed with the Arduino UNO board settings and selecting Arduino UNO board.
The ATmega328 on the Arduino UNO comes with a boot loader in it which allows to upload new code to it without the use of an external hardware programmer. It communicates using the original STK500 protocol. We can also bypass the boot loader and program the microcontroller through the ICSP (In-Circuit Serial Programming) header.
When a car travelling reaches IR sensor 1, the sensor gets activated. From this moment onward, a timer is initiated and keeps counting until it reaches IR sensor 2. By simulating between the two sensors, one calculates the speed at which the car has traveled from IR sensor 1 to IR sensor 2. This gives the speed of the car. The IR sensors are connected to the Arduino board. This detects the speed of the vehicle and gives the buzzer sound when the vehicle crosses its limit in a single lane road. The relay sensor gets activated with the low current obtained from the buzzer and provides enough current to glow the bulb. The on and off of the bulb indicates the closing of the doors.
6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
On implementation of this project, when a vehicle over speeds, the buzzer goes off and drives the relay. This results in the periodic on and off the bulb indicating that the door is being closed. When a vehicle moves within the limited speed, the buzzer does not sound and the relay is not activated. As a result the bulb keeps glowing indicating that the doors are open.
Even though this project has its own pros and cons it has been on the rise recently and will continue its dominance in various zones. Thus, the construction of the vehicle speed detection using Arduino is completed and its working has been tested. The outcome of the project is satisfactory and revised safety to the zones in which it is implemented.