This report contains the outputs of the previous planning phase which are unchanged and the outputs of this design phase. The process design outputs consist of; A Design failure mode and effects analysis (DFMEA) that was completed with the information currently available to analyze and prioritize the different levels and areas of risk included in the project. Design for manufacturability and assembly is also reviewed. Design verification has ensured that the product is designed according to intentions. The design verification is summarized in 3 categories including design verification tests, design verification methods, and design verification implementation. Next analyzed and summarized for the CEO in this report are the design reviews. Design reviews are regularly scheduled meetings led by the design engineers which cover all affected areas. The main objective of these meetings is to prevent problems and to clarify present or future misunderstandings. In addition, it is a mechanism to monitor progress and report to management, investors, and you the CEO. Control plans were also created for the safety shoes manufacturing process and were found to be a helpful tool that can be used by the organization to outline the processes and the materials required to complete them. Engineering drawings are provided in appendix I and will help to visualize the safety shoe features. Furthermore, data would be provided on the engineering specifications for the project. The material specifications for the project are also contained within the report and include specifications for the raw materials selected for our product. At the end of this phase, it was found that our design is feasible for the manufacturing, assembly, and testing capabilities of our industry.
The inputs of the design phase consist of the outputs from the planning phase. The inputs can be summarized as follows:
Our design goal is to have safe, comfortable, and stylish shoes. Most of the materials to be used will be acquired from the province of Ontario and will be made in the Kitchener/Cambridge region.
All the equipment used in manufacturing the product will be periodically maintained and good quality material will be used.
After building the preliminary bill of materials all the costs of raw materials were stated. These materials include leather, rubber, foam, steel, and fabrics. The cost of the shoe would be approximately 100$. It is a little costlier than some of our competitors but owing to the new design we have confidence that we will gain a larger market share in the longer run.
After that, we made a preliminary process flow chart for the manufacturing process. We also stated some unique and improved features of our product which are superior comfort and unique style.
Next, we mentioned the product assurance plan in which we talk about the methods by which we can ensure the quality of our product. It mentions hiring experienced engineering personnel who will have knowledge compatible with our needs.
Lastly, we talked about receiving management support as they will monitor the funding of our project. They will also identify any risks in the early phases of the project such that we can plan our strategies accordingly.
Design Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (DFMEA)
A Design failure mode and effects analysis (DFMEA) was completed with the information currently available to analyze and prioritize the different levels and areas of risk included in the safety shoe project. The DFMEA is provided in appendix A and provides not only the levels of risk involved in the project but also a written action plan on how to reduce the amount of risk.
The severity scale is used to find the severity and probability of any type of failure occurring in the product. It can be found in appendix B. By taking the product of the numerical level of severity, probability, and detectability we can determine the “Risk Priority Number”.
Overall the DFMEA provides a means to assess the ways a product/process can fail, the level of risk related to the failures, what actions should be taken to prevent the risk, and how the company should track the risk impacts. This tool focuses on preventing the failures and problems from occurring rather than dealing with them after they have already occurred and impacted the business.
To summarize in the DFMEA the first failure that we found was in the process of leather cutting. Sometimes the edges of the leather were not cut properly which causes improper fit during the assembly process. This is a very severe problem as it can ruin the assembly of a shoe and cause extreme uncomfort for the customer hence it has been given a severity factor of 9. The cause for this problem is worn-out blades. After some time of cutting, blades lose their edge and they will cut the leather improperly. Currently, we inspect the blades visually and the chances of such a problem happening are quite low. However, to further minimize such problems a laser monitoring system can be put in place which monitors the size of the leather is cut. If the size is outside the tolerances the system will immediately notify the operator.
The second failure comes in the stitching process. The problem here is uneven stitching which occurs when the jigs and fixtures meant to hold the shoe firmly in its place during stitching are worn out. This creates the fixtures to loosen due to the vibrations of the machine causing uneven stitching. This can ruin the looks of the product. Currently, we inspect the fixtures periodically and change them after a predetermined time. This failure has an RPN number of 105 as this problem is not much likely to arise.
The third failure comes during the packaging of the product when the wrong type of shoes are packed this causes an unpleasant experience for our customer. This problem arises due to wrong labeling on the product. Currently, the packaging is visually inspected and thus human error can also factor in this problem. Proper inventory control is required to minimize the occurrence of this problem.
Design For Manufacturability And Assembly: -
The current safety shoe companies' design for manufacturability and assembly can be found in appendix E.
Design Verification: -
Design Verification: Design verification is an essential step in the development of any product. It ensures us that the product as designed is the same as the product as intended. There are three important tools that are important to design verification i.e.
- Requirements management
- Configuration management
Verification Tests: We have performed some important tests for design verification that are discussed below:
- Development test: Design tests have been performed with all materials like leather, rubber, and steel which is useful for determining the feasibility of the design idea and gaining insights that further direct the design.
- Prototype testing: Prototype occurs with items that closely resemble the final product. We have performed the prototype testing just to make sure that our safety shoes have the desired properties. Prototyping helps us to forecast the performance of our product in a controlled environment.
- Proof testing: Another type of verification test includes proof testing. Rather than testing to specification, proof tests are designed to test the product to failure. It is done to determine the average life of safety shoes.
- Acceptance testing: It is a form of non-destructive testing that is conducted alongside the production unit. This test is conducted in the initial phase of production.
Verification Methods: The verification methods used by our team are as follows:
- Demonstration: Demonstrations have been conducted in the actual environment. The cost of demonstration changes accordingly to the type of demonstration.
- Inspection: Inspection is done to verify requirements related to physical characteristics like strength and comfort of the shoes. Inspection is a comparatively lesser expensive process.
- Analysis: Analysis is used in the design of the product. The analysis gives a good idea about the performance of the product without actually testing the product as testing is more expensive.
Design Verification Implementation: Verification implementation involves the three main steps provided below:
- Performing verification activities
- Recording the results
The design review is a crucial phase of the product quality planning process. They have regularly scheduled meetings consisting of the design engineers who lead the meeting. The main objective of these meetings is to prevent problems and to clarify present or future misunderstandings.
Our company decided that the heads and supervisors of the design team, plant managers, quality engineers & the marketing team will meet bi-weekly and then submit a report to the chief executive officer and major investors. These meetings will cover important topics such as the design/functional requirements, reliability and confidence goals, the results of simulation tests run by the company, and their failures.
These meetings will be using various techniques like benchmarking, cause and effect diagrams, characteristics matrixes, critical path method, Quality Function Deployment, and Design Verification Plan & Report. These techniques provide a brief working document that aids engineering personnel in various areas such as the development of a logical testing sequence to assure that the system/components meet all engineering requirements.
A template of a report made to the management after a design review meeting can be found in the appendix.
Prototype Build – Control Plans
A control plan is a tool that is used by an organization to outline the processes and the materials/equipment required to complete them.
The main objectives of a control plan include communicating the decisions of the supplier during the entire manufacturing process, verifying the existence of production controls at each step, explains the reaction steps to be undertaken in case of problems. A control plan is usually designed after the completion of process flow diagrams or at the prototype build. It is also useful while implementing a new process or changing an existing one. These documents should be constantly updated during the manufacturing process.
Control plans for our product can be found in appendices E and F.
A 3D model for our product can be found in Appendix I. It consists of the various physical dimensions of the shoes. It also gives a glance at the aesthetics of the shoes also analysis can be carried out based on this model. Any change if any can be made in the design and then a new model can be easily generated. Also, many different designs and color combinations can be combined in the same model.
- Water: The water supply to the brewery should be close to the brewery as it will be needed to perform quality tests on the shoes.
- Electrical: The Plant has a commercial wiring system. A 200-amp unit is installed in the factory including all the machinery and testing equipment.
- Finish: Floors should be made of concrete to support the weight of machines and workers. A rubber coating should be provided on the floor so that no damage is done to people if they fall. This rubber should also be chemical resistant.
- Square Footage: The total space for the factory would be at least 1500 square feet, and if possible, we wish to extend it to 3000 sqft in the future.
- Ventilation: A good Ventilation system was required to remove condensation, and the smell of chemicals and provide fresh air. Adequate screens were used to prevent pests from entering the premises. Special care is taken to make sure the assembly room is free from dust as dust can cause problem during the adhesion of two surfaces
The material specifications for the shoes can be found in appendix J and consist of the specifications for the raw materials use in the shoes like leather, different types of rubber based on types of soles, and steel toe caps.
Gages/Testing Equipment Requirements
All the gages and equipment’s needed to test our product are already available in the factory and hence there is no need to buy special equipment.
Drawing And Specification Changes
Drawing and specification changes are required to ensure the team that the changes are properly communicated and properly documented to all affected areas but in our product, no drawing & specification changes are required.
To conclude, in this phase the design of the product was established, and it was feasible according to manufacturing, assembly, testing, and shipping. In order to verify this, a DFMEA was created followed by a design for manufacturability and assembly. Furthermore, several control charts were made for the process to ensure that if any problem arises then there were suitable measures to counter them. A 3D model for the shoe is also built using CAD software it provides us with the physical dimensions of our product along with its aesthetics. We provided some engineering specifications which will be used to manufacture our product. Next, we provided the specifications for our materials and there are no drawing and specification changes at the end of the design phase.
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