1.0 Introduction to aviation history
For more than 200decades, humans have made extensive efforts to peruse the skies with man-made flying objects. Man’s fascination with flight has been demonstrated by countless records throughout history. Aviation history began with the invention of kites and gliders, before emerging into the modern era’s multi-million-dollar aviation industry.In ancient times, mankind navigated the sky by imitating the birds. Flapping wings which is known as ornithopters were built to strap on their arm or machines. Unfortunately, it only works better on a bird scale than on a much larger scale to lift a man and a machine off the ground.
During the 17th century, the age of modern aviation embodies two major categories which is lighter-than-air aviation and heavier-than-air aviation. This type of lighter-than-air aviation mainly involved balloons filled with either hot air or hydrogen gas. However, hot-air balloons were hardly a practical flying method as there was no way to get from one place to another unless blown by wind to the desired direction. This happens due to lack of maneuverability. On the other hand, airships also known as dirigibles came to the rescue with its ability to lift from hydrogen gas instead of using heat. This has succeeded in being the first airship to carry passengers over any long distance.
Upon looking at heavier-than-air aviation, that was the time where the Wright Brothers, namely Orville and Wilbur Wright has created history in the year 1903, by successfully flew their Wright Flyers, in which the longest time was 59seconds and covered 852 feet. Their flights have set up a new standard for the aviation industry as it was a combination of both control and power. Ever since then, the Brothers were known as the founder of aircraft. Nonetheless, their successful flight testing resulted to be used in military instead of civil purposes. The airplanes were used as a war weapon during the times of World War for air-bombing purposes or fighting with opponents or enemy aircraft. Since end of World War, flights have been used extensively for civil purposes like means of transportation no matter for traveling or transferring heavy loads.
To be aligned with the growth of the modern era, digital systems have invaded modern aircraft, rendering most mechanical and analog instruments outdated. discovery of better materials for creating lighter and stronger airplanes were found through the computer simulations like computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM).
2.0 Discuss the history of the development chosen aircraft type and relate it with the aircraft principle.
History of airbus A319CJ
Boeing Business Jet and corporate jets like Bombardier Global Express and Gulfstream V are those aircraft that behold the industry of aircraft all this while. Even though they are known for their brand, Airbus Corporate Jetliner (A319CJ), a long-range corporate jet development of the A319, was the only aircraft to compete against all those popularly established aircraft. A319CJ was initially launched at Paris Airshow in 1997 and in October 1998 it was first rolled out of Dasa’sHamburg A319/A321 assembly hall.The A319CJ is developed with mostly to resemble the A319 but still with some minimal amendment. This literally meant that the A319CJ can be easily changed to an airliner, thus spike up the aircraft’s potential resale value.IAE V2500s was initially empowering A319CJ but still CFM56s available too.The A319’s containerized cargo hold means that the CJ’s auxiliary fuel tanks can be easily loaded and unloaded, flexible for operators to reconfigure the aircraft for changing payload or range requirements.A319CJ weighed about 3.8 tons which is equivalent to 8500lb and the interior designing had cost about 4 to 10 million USD. A Green A319CJ costs $US35m and interior completion can cost 4 to 10 million USD. A minimum of four and a maximum of six months is the time period for outfitting. As for the flight capacity, it equips of 2 flight crew and six standard layouts offering seating from 10 to 39 passengers. It’s expected that around 12 of A319CJs are to be built each year. The first on air trip with passengers was scheduled in November 1999. Around late 1998, there were twelve firm orders.
2.1Explain the aircraft development history in the aviation industry.
The historical backdrop of flying is an account of human beings want to fly through the sky like flying creature. People’s dreams was dependent to copy this.His contemplations are put into work lastly as his fantasies and creative energies transform into the real world. A man named Iracus adored taking a gander at winged animals and needs to fly like them. Iracus and his dad, Daedalus endeavored to escape from Crete by making wings made out of wax and quills. His dad cautions him to not fly excessively near the sun but rather Iracus disregards his dad’s advice. Iracus’ wings softened and he fell into the ocean where he suffocated. In this manner, went along the saying; ‘don’t fly excessively near the sun’. In this story, we can reason that the principal conceivable endeavor to fly brought about disappointment. The Chinese were believed to be among the most punctual to utilize kites, which was roughly 2800 years back.
From that point forward, Leonardo Da Vinci was simply the primary person who devoted to a venture about flying machines. He was a researcher, a draftsman and a painter. He longed for flying and made some levelheaded yet informal structures. He attracted draws and endeavored to develop them. In 1500, he accumulated data on flying creatures and how they fly. He began drawing flying machines with fluttering wings. At long last, by following the wings of a feathered creature, Leonardo Da Vinci made the ‘Fluttering Wing Aircraft’ to enable people to fly. This was the main genuine endeavor of flight.
The second endeavor of flight was around the seventeenth Century when researchers began to find the attributes of the air and gasses that were lighter than air. In this manner, numerous tests were begun and one specific investigation was sufficiently effective to be known as the main human flight. The Montgolfier Brothers were creators of the primary ever-useful inflatable. In 1782, the found that by warming air into a paper or texture pack, it will rise. In 1783, they turned out to be increasingly imaginative and inventive by really flying a sheep, duck and chicken for an entire 8 minutes. With these trials, they at last made their first human trip in November of 1783. In any case, their inflatable was fragmented in light of the fact that it needed directional control.
In 1804, the designer whose lightweight flyer had gotten the title ‘First Successful Glider’ was George Cayley. He directed an assortment of tests and analyses expected to investigate streamlined standards and to assemble data of significant worth in the structure of air ship. His lightweight plane had a total arrangement of body, tail and wing. He discovered that lift is made from weight contrast over the wing surfaces. He likewise had the plan to wrap the wings of the lightweight flyer for move control. In spite of the fact that it was not accessible at the time, George Cayley proposed a plan to introduce motor on the lightweight flyer to make trust. George Cayley is acclaimed for his wide specialized and logical enthusiasm for his innovations. While George Cayley is known to be the principal individual to effectively concoct a lightweight flyer, Otto Lilienthal was really the first historically speaking individual to effectively guide a lightweight plane. This was around the 1890s where Otto Lilienthal had officially achieved more than 2500 lightweight plane flights which were extremely effective. He discovered that the heading of the lightweight flyer can be constrained by the development of our body.
William S. Henson created the principal plane with a motor. He began to structure a steam motor for planes. Notwithstanding, after one attempt which came about to a disappointment, William S. Henson surrendered in light of the fact that the model Aerial Steam Carriage did not execute as it was normal. The Wright Brothers flew effectively following 4 years of diligent work with lightweight planes and after that motors added to the lightweight flyers. Wright siblings accomplished the principal fueled, supported and controlled plane trip in 1904. The Wright siblings intently pursued the exploration of the German pilot, Otto Lilienthal. The siblings chose to begin their very own analyses with flight. At long last got the siblings building up an idea called ‘wing twisting’. They created a Flyer that ascended into the air and remained for 12 seconds, at 120 feet. They at that point included a portable rudder and prevailing with regards to flying the main free, controlled flight which was heavier than plane.
Man’s interest with flight has been exhibited by innumerable records all through history.Aviation history started with the innovation of kites and lightweight flyers, before rising into the cutting-edge period’s multi-million-dollar avionics industry. In old occasions, humanity explored the sky by copying the winged creatures. Fluttering wings which is known as ornithopters were worked to lash on their arm or machines. Lamentably, it just works preferred on a fowl scale over on a lot bigger scale to lift a man and a machine off the ground.
Amid the seventeenth hundreds of years, the period of present-day flight encapsulates two noteworthy classes which is lighter-than-air aeronautics and heavier-than-air flying. This sort of lighter-than-air flying mostly included inflatables loaded up with either tourist or hydrogen gas. In any case, sight-seeing balloons were not really a down-to-earth flying technique as there was no real way to get starting with one spot then onto the next except if passed upwind to the ideal direction. This occurs because of the absence of mobility. Then again, aircrafts otherwise called airships acted the hero with its capacity of lifting from hydrogen gas as opposed to utilizing heat. This has prevailed with regards to being the primary aircraft to convey travelers over any long separation.
After taking a gander at heavier-than-air flight, that was where the Wright Brothers, to be specific Orville and Wilbur Wright has made history in the year 1903, by effectively flew their Wright Flyers, wherein the longest time was 59seconds and secured 852 feet. Their flights have set up another standard for flying industry as it was a blend of both control and power. As far back at that point, the Brothers were known as the author of flying machines. In any case, their fruitful flight testing came about to be utilized in the military rather than common reason. The airplanes were utilized as a war weapon amid the seasons of World War for air-bombarding purposes or battling with rivals or adversaries flying machines. After end of World War, flights have been utilized broadly for common purposes like methods for transportation regardless of for voyaging or exchanging overwhelming burdens.
To be lined up with the development of the present-day period, computerized frameworks have attacked the advanced airplane, rendering most mechanical and simple instruments obsolete. Disclosure of better materials for making lighter and more grounded planes were found through the PC reproductions like PC supported structure (CAD) and PC helped producing (CAM).An example as stated from the internet is the “glass cockpit” employing LCD monitor alternatively of the mechanical dials and gauges.
3.0 Discuss the aircraft technology applied in your chosen aircraft and its contribution in the modernization in the aviation industry.
The technology of A319CJ aircraft
Aircraft seats among 18 and 50 passengers, depending on the configuration. The cockpit is fabricated from glass with retractable HUD (Head-Up display), and MFDs (Multi-characteristic displays). The standard crew are 2 pilots, 2 flight engineers and a pair of stewards. The cabin is 78 feet in length, width is 12.1 ft, and the heightis 7.3 ft. the usual four auxiliary gasoline tanks are 6,000 nautical miles (11,100 hundred km). The assistant fuel tanks are removable and are introduced in the load compartment. The administration roof has an expansion of 41,000 feet. The A319CJ have 3 ACT which empowers as long as 10 hours flight time. It is under the EASA Commercial. Also, the VVIP lodge is planned by Alberto Pinto. It likewise has King Size beds in the Aft Cabin. Additionally, washroom with shower in the air ship itself. A319CJ likewise contains Rockwell Collins Stage Entertainment System with SATCOM giving Internet – WiFi. The motor utilized in A319CJ is CFM 56-5B7/3.
The gear gave are Rockwell Collins ”Stage” Media Distribution System using A/C WiFi Network, Video Distribution to Zonal Screens with Laptop Access Point for Zonal Screens, RCA/YPrPB Input Points with iPod Conversion, Single SBB SATCOM WiFi (+ 4 RJ45 Access Points). 1-2 Mbps by means of Satcom Direct and SRT 2100 B SATCOM (counting High-Speed Module 64kbts) with SATCOM Cockpit Voice Interface. Consistence Status Report against JAR-OPS1, Subpart K§L, at Green Aircraft Delivery, FANS A+ Certified, Air Traffic Services Unit (ATSU) Alternate Equipment FANS A+ related and MTOW at 76.5 t with EASA Certified Crew Rest and 3 ACT Sequence A. Snappy Access Recorder (QAR) and Electrical Footwarmers for Pilots. VHF Data Radio (VDR) Alternate Equipment (with Acceptance of 46.21.111) – FANS A+ related with VHF Data Link (VDL) Mode 2 Function. Crisis Locator Transmitter (ELT) Alternate Equipment, Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) Alternate Equipment (SFE), Additional Cockpit Protective Breathing Equipment (PBE) in Coat Stowage (SFE) Additional Cockpit Protective Breathing Equipment (PBE) on Aft RH Wall (SFE), AIRBUS Standard Airline Operational Communication (AOC) Software Alternate Equipment, Integrated Standby Instrument System (ISIS) Optional Functions, Indication of Metric Altitude on Primary Flight Display (PFD) with Dual Advisory Ice Detection Systems. Activity on Runways with Reduced Width, Catalytic Converters and HFDL Function for HFDR.
The inside of A319CJ are grand. The main region is a parlor with a couch and with two seats around a mixed drink table, just as two seats around a collapsing table. The mid-lodge living space can be changed over into a feasting territory that can suit a four, six or eight visitor eating background, or for the business explorer into a gathering table to hold your significant gatherings. The completely prepared office enables you to remain associated through its Wi-Fi satellite web and Sat phone. Also, for all the more loosening up treks, the cutting-edge STAGE media stimulation framework offers a broad library of blockbusters and great films and a choice of music collections through the on-board experience. The third zone offers explorers a cozy back parlor that can be deterred from the principal lodge, highlighting a couch that changes over into a twofold bed and a further four individual seats. Behind this private parlor is the ”main room”. The back of the air ship has been amplified to include an open private ”main room”. An extra-large bed with an exquisite dark wood facade outline becomes the dominant focal point in this paradise over the mists, and the dividers are enveloped with delicate beige cowhide quilt work. The sumptuously enormous en-suite restroom includes a wide rectangular shower, one of the first ever to be introduced in an ACJ.
With every one of these highlights in the A319CJ, the flying machine has been one of the hot-selling personal jets with great audits. Most customers were entirely agreeable and picks this air ship to be their top technique for transportation. This is particularly to the Italian Prime Minister, Silvio Berlusconi who picks A319CJ as his own personal jet.
Leonardo Da Vinci who drew sketches of flying machines after studying how birds and bats fly and finally inventing his own creation called “The Flapping-Wing Aircraft”. After Leonardo Da Vinci’s first attempt to fly, many other attempts were made by more scientists and inventors. Some of them were the Mongolfier Brothers who invented the first practical balloon, George Cayley who first invented the glider, Otto Lilienthal who invented the first glider who could be piloted by humans.
There also was William S. Henson who invented the first airplane with an engine, Samuel P. Langley who successfully flew a steam-engined airplane and finally the Wright Brothers who flew an aircraft successfully. After the Wright Brothers invention, most aircrafts had similarities with the aircraft design of the Wright Brothers. With all the many types of aircrafts flying in the sky these days, A319CJ from the Airbus family has many interesting features and technologies.
A319CJ has been a top choice in buyers turning it into a private jet. Its interior is wide and comfortable, making the perfect corporate jet capable of fulfilling any need. It has the ability to offer the world’s most rewarding flying experiences. It also delivers more space which customers can design and install their ideal cabin
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- FLYING MACHINES – William Samuel Henson. 2018. FLYING MACHINES – William Samuel Henson. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.flyingmachines.org/hens.html. [Accessed 10 September 2018].
- Fig. 1.1 Wilbur Wright, 1867-1912Fig. 1.2 Orville Wright, 1871-1948
- Fig. 1.3 Wright Glider, 1902 Fig. 1.4 Structure of the Wright Glider
- Fig. 1.5 AirplaneFig. 2.1 Picture of A319CJ