Essay on Historical Background of Bioethics
The essence of bioethics had traced back to Egypt and Mesopotamia periods . It was assumed that the first regulations related to medicine were detected by then. Furthermore, bioethics has also some association with Hippocrates (Greece, 460-370 BC) and who contributed to the Hippocratic Oath (a mandatory principle that governs physicians in the field of clinical practices) . The origin of the term bioethics was derived from two Greek words, bios mean life, and ethos means behavior [8, 9]. The concept of bioethics was coined by a protestant pastor and philosopher, Fritz Jahir in 1927 .
On the other hand, scholasticism (it was a system of philosophical and theological teaching prominent during the era of the medieval period, a thought based on the authority of the church fathers and of Aristotle as well as his commentators) advanced in the field of morals theology that responds to the questions of natural laws and preservation of life. In addition to this, from the 17th century onwards, books and texts began to be produced that dealt with the fields of moral values and medicine. These ideas, soon after, progressed from the religious domain to the secular world, and later these have served as the origins of Medical Deontology . Generally, the history of bioethics can be categorized into two main stages; these are classified as before Potter and after Potter (oncological physician van Reseller Potter, American Biochemist , who named the term bioethics for the first time, at the University of Wisconsin) [11, 12]. Before Potter stage encompasses two phenomena mentioned earlier: Firstly, it includes the period between Hippocratic Oath and the Medical Deontology . The second stage called after Potter extends from the Nuremberg Code to the first heart transplant  (carried out by the South African Christian Barnard at Groote Schuur hospital, in Cape Town .3rd of December 1967) .
Medical ethics have some similarities with bioethics (biomedical ethics), but both concepts are not identical. Medical ethics is mainly related to issues of clinical practice, whilst bioethics is a broad subject area primarily focused on moral values beyond medicine including other biological sciences. Bioethics does not require acceptance of traditional values which are basic practices and fundamental in medical ethics. The birth of modern research ethics began with a desire to protect human subjects from intentional illicit acts to those involved in the research process .
Hence, bioethics is a branch of applied ethics that studies philosophical, social, and legal matters arising in health and other life sciences. It is mainly concerned with human well-being, although sometimes addresses ethical issues related to the nonhuman aspect and biological environment. As mentioned earlier, the concept was coined by Potter. “Bioethics, the Science of Survival” (1970) describes bioethics as a global movement. On the other hand, Callahan further noted “Bioethics as a Discipline” (1973), he further argued for the establishment of a new academic discipline; Callahan also stressed that bioethics is a creation of a new organization in which researchers could examine and analyze their medical dilemmas . German theologian Fritz Jahr published numerous articles in the years 1927, 1928, and 1934 using the German term called “Bio-Ethik” which translated as “Bio-Ethics” and further argued to emphasize more on a more civilized, ethical approach to events related to human beings and biological environment . His bio-ethical perspective further elaborated as; “Respect every living thing, in principle, as an end not as a means in itself and treat it accordingly wherever it is possible”.
Bioethics addresses the following types of assumptions such as; it decides what researchers should perform (what decisions or choices are morally right or acceptable to perform), it explains why researchers should do something, and how they justify their choices or decisions using morally appropriate terms. Bioethics also describes how researchers could do something with a method or in a manner of their response.
In the Vaughn’s 3rd Ed new text concerning bioethics in bio-medical issues, principalities and cases. The texts does exploration to matters pertaining philosophy, medicine issues, social and even legal main effective bioethical issues. It does introduction to the ethical matters in the medical operations. It extents to bringing effect to through bioethics and even the moral intelligence. Vaughn’s text envelops most personal drives, moral beliefs and also the routine for evaluating them. This new edition owns several characteristics that boost...
This European synthesis, in his view, was the basis for providing a secular state with a secular moral authority guided by reason through philosophical arguments that could be agreed on by all (Hugo Tristram Engelhardt, 2017). Engelhardt rejected this whole-heartedly and cautioned the readers to be aware of the fact that, “there still remain powerful, but unfounded philosophical expectations regarding the existence of a generally secularly justifiable morality, bioethics, and political authority that persist as remnants from the via antiqua...
Introduction: There are many advantages and disadvantages when it comes to genetically engineering a baby. There are also reasons why people would want to genetically engineer a baby. In the movie ‘My Sister’s Keeper’, a couple used genetic engineering to prevent their daughter from being taken away by cancer. Although, they got these body parts from the baby they made and the problem with that is if they continue taking body parts from her, then she will soon die while...
Love has a variety of meaning it depends on the person on how he or she understands it. However, for Judith Butler saying “I love you” is a cliché and she is dissecting the actual sentence, for her the thought of commitment through marriage or any symbolism is a senseless matter. She concludes that because she believes that circumstances change so as well as the people. Hence, to be able to give a commitment to someone or something you should...
There are some conflicting answers to the following questions in our daily lives such as; you have to pass the exam successfully. To achieve your goal, shall you cheat on the exam or rather study hard? Patient X needs kidney transplantation, another patient is dying due to a car accident that has a normal kidney. Shall the doctor allow let the critical patient to die fast and transplant the kidney to the other patient? Two competitive companies prepared a new...
Bioethics deals with addressing ethical troubles in healthcare, medication, research, biotechnology, and the surroundings. Typically these problems are addressed from many distinctive disciplines. People make a contribution to the bioethics discussion by drawing on understanding methods from the sciences, social sciences, and the humanities. Professionals working within the discipline of bioethics consist of philosophers, scientists, fitness administrators, lawyers, theologians, anthropologists, disability advocates, and social workers. People may teach, do studies, and deal with patients within the scientific place or work...
This paper analyzes the quality versus quantity of longevity of life in accordance with society and bioethics. This is followed through by the analysis of Dr. Emmanuel’s “Why I Hope to Die at 75” article and a rebuttal to it from “Bioethics and Why I Hope to Live Beyond Age 75 Attaining Wisdom!” by Miguel Faria. Dr. Emanuel discusses the destructive notion of the “American Immortal” by how it imposes in supportive cost on society and how old age deprives...
Imam Al-Shafi, an Islamic Jurist, has significantly contributed to the Islamic religious tradition through his knowledge and systematic methodology in developing a new science in his approach to jurisprudence. Imam Al-Shafi has contributed to the Islamic living tradition by reconciling the relationships between the Hanafi Madhab and Maliki Madhab, providing a reliable process of Jurisprudence. Sufism is a spiritual and mystical philosophy of Islam focused on a direct connection to Allah by forgoing material goods and relationships. Imam Al-Shafi gave...
This essay will attempt to discuss in detail the definitions of biosafety and bioethics, the different aspects surrounding biosafety and bioethics, as well as prominent biosafety and bioethics issues with regard to biotechnology and how they can be solved. Furthermore, how risk assessment plays a role in biosafety will be discussed, as well as certain suggestions to increase the level of biosafety. Laboratory biosafety will also be discussed briefly. Ways in which ethical issues regarding biotechnology can be addressed will...
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