Based on half a century of rapid urbanization, increasingly individuals choose live in city and almost half of population in world live in the urbanized place, due to the global climate crisis some issues will be exasperated. Therefore, it results in the shortage of water resources in cities in recent years. The term ‘‘water crisis’’ described as the demand of useable water resources for agriculture, industry, individuals’ use, generate energy and entertainment cannot be satisfied. The pressure of water resource due to the over-exploitation, it leads to deterioration of quality and quantity of useable water resources (Jain & Singh, 2010, pp.215-237). Hence, this essay will discuss the background and responses of stakeholders in different cities cause water crisis.
Firstly, since 2014 the southeast area in Brazil face the serious drought, SÃO PAULO inevitably affected by the disaster. In SÃO PAULO, Brazilian government and local citizens have to face the increasingly serious water crisis. Otherwise, the water crisis in SÃO PAULO does not result in deaths directly, however it will result in a huge financial loss and affect the daily life of millions of individuals. Besides, the factitious and natural behavior and phenomenon results in water crisis in city. Overall, the lack of rain fall, insufficient planning in supply and distribution and inefficient occupation of the useable water resources lead to the lacking water supply and water crisis (Érico et al., 2016, pp. 21-26). Water crisis in SÃO PAULO results in the social instability, local economy damaged and agriculture broken.
Through the ages, SÃO PAULO always disturbed by drought, the climate affected rainfall in the southeast area in Brazil, so water crisis in SÃO PAULO can be defined as a natural disaster, because it based on drought, drought presented as a prolonged period time with more or no rainfall, and the soil moisture loss is more than its limits or a water shortage in a period time. The lacking natural water resources results in some adverse effects in SÃO PAULO, firstly, the cost of living in SÃO PAULO will be raised, because the necessity of water resources, the lacking part need transported by other region, that results in the raise expense by transportation cost, labor cost and so on, so citizens in SÃO PAULO have to pay expensive price for their daily use of water resources, that cause citizens complained and dissatisfied about their government. In addition, the balance of biology circle will be broken, which needs more water resources to sustain.
Otherwise, some political and institutional factors directly result in water crisis in SÃO PAULO during these years. Some government departments confidence in restored precipitation without scientific data and research, that results in overconfidence about forecast and miss the best opportunity of restored precipitation. Depends on the situation, the degree of development of scientific technology and policies of Brazil, highly technical language cannot be used in scientific communication and difficult obtain information from scientific research. Consequently, disordered communication and get incomplete information cause water crisis in SÃO PAULO.
Besides, based on the unprecise research and disordered government departments of water crisis in SÃO PAULO, various agencies collected the different and conflict information, all of that results in SÃO PAULO miss the chance for preventing and finding water crisis. Furthermore, Brazil government do not focus on preventing water crisis, it always realized the serious of situation late and solve the problem after the disaster, the consequence of government’s behavior harms the local economy, most industries and citizens’ benefits, even pay a huge financial aid for disaster area after disaster, but it does not help the situation. Moreover, Brazilian politicians always interference the solution of water crisis which proposed by political opponent and involved by electoral issues, all of that cause postpone the solution and miss the disclosed about the problems to be faced. In addition, due to the unique political institution and situation in Brazil, the federal governance cannot be implemented to different states, consequently, Brazil government needs support from media and public opinion to implement their plans or policies. That results in a cumbersome and inefficient administrative system which cannot dispose the problems of water crisis immediately (Érico et al., 2016, pp. 21-30).
[bookmark: OLE_LINK12][bookmark: OLE_LINK13]However, in recent years, the Brazil government started to focus on water crisis and pay more attention for preventing and govern water crisis in the southeast area in Brazil. In prevention, transposition of rivers and build new reservoirs can minimizing leaks for unnecessary loss, for instance, river diversion results in unnecessary loss for water resources, local government cannot stockpile and use the water resources effectively without transposition of rivers and build new reservoirs. Besides, build and protect riparian forest reservoirs is a long-term prevention for solve water crisis, that will reduce runoff and soil erosion for local land. Furthermore, SÃO PAULO government pay more attention for reduce and limit the adverse impact of water crisis, it paid some subsidy for customers who use the pressure reducing valves and decreased consume water resources consciously. All of that decreased the adverse impact of water crisis and solve the problems of water crisis efficiently (Érico et al., 2016, pp. 21-35).
Secondly, Beijing is a dry city which face the problems of water crisis. Beijing has a continental climate with high temperatures and large amounts of precipitation and rainfall in summer. With the development of Beijing, population in Beijing has an explosive growth and the urbanized land occupied a huge amount of local land in this half a century. The problems of water crisis became an important issue in the current ecological and environmental crisis, it totally affects sustainable economic and social development in Beijing.
The water crisis occurs in Beijing due to some factors, they are natural disaster, excessive urbanization, development of industries and water pollution. The water crisis can be described as one kind of natural disaster, due to the global warming and land desertification, china become the most serious natural disasters on soil erosion and water resources loss country in the world, especially Beijing surrounding region, Beijing mainly rely on surface water resource for development and construction of urbanization, however in recent years Chaobai river and Yongding river become dry up and government have to develop the groundwater resources for increasingly demand.
However, the depth of the groundwater also decreased, in 1950 the depth of groundwater was 1 m in the Beijing eastern outskirts, nevertheless, in 1975 the outflow of Yuquan Mountain was no longer flowing and in 2010 the average depth to groundwater resource was more than 25 m, it increased 25 times from 1950 to 2010. The flood is another factor which cause water crisis, due to the serious soil erosion, Beijing and surrounding region lost the immunity of flood, it occurred every summer from 1949-1957, almost 80 waterlogged was identified and 80% of floods occurred on roads. The extensive flood in Beijing polluted the quality of useable water resources which includes surface water resources and groundwater resources. In addition, excessive urbanization is one factor which results in water crisis in Beijing, after 1949 with the development and urbanized of capital city, Chinese government built a lot of reservoirs for the demand of Beijing, to some extent these reservoirs affected the natural water circulation, it results in uncertain change of local environment and water resources.
The excessive urbanization still results in an explosive growth of population, it reached 21.54 million in 2018, the demand of water resources increased with the population growth, it was overburden for water resources in Beijing and surrounding region. Then, increasing civil land, industrial land and recreational land occupied the original natural land from 100.2 km2 in 1950 to 1,289.2 km2 in 2013, Inevitably, all of that bring over stress for local land and local bearing capacity of water resources. Otherwise, with the development of local economy in Beijing, water pollution become the biggest concern. From 1949 to 1956, Beijing even did not have wastewater treatment plants only built two sewage pumping stations. The discharge amount of wastewater increasing started in 1958, and it had significant increase from 1962-1992, at that time only one treatment plant use for purifying the water, however that was inefficient and overloaded.
Until 2018, 34 treatment plants still cannot satisfy the demand of Beijing. However, Chinese government had their plan for solve water crisis, the first one is South-to-North Water Diversion Project, it presented as a major strategic project to transfer part of the abundant water resources in the Yangtze river basin to north region in china and northwest region in china, that changes the situation of waterlogging in south China and drought in north China and serious shortage of water resources in north China, this project is aimed at promoting the coordinated development of economy, society, population, resources and environment in north and south China and it has three water transfer routes, namely the eastern, middle and western routes, with a total investment of 500 billion RMB.
Especially, Beijing obtained overwhelming benefits from the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, Beijing south-to-north water diversion project construction committee received supporting projects include 83 kilometers of water transmission trunk line, total storage capacity of about 40 million cubic meters of storage, water supply of 4 million tons per day of new expansion and renovation of water plant. The first phase of the project will transfer 9.5 billion cubic meters of water per year on average, while the second phase will reach 13 billion cubic meters, and Beijing occupied almost 12.4% of total water resources. However, opponents mainly believe that the south-to-north water diversion project is too expensive and too small to bring into play economic benefits and cause water pollution.
The huge amount of water diversion, dry season may make the Yangtze river water shortage, affect the navigation of the Yangtze river, the Yangtze estuary salty tide deepened, more likely to cause ecological crisis. In fact, South-to-North Water Diversion Project is a favorable project which provides benefit for individuals and country in the future, for instance, the pressure of water resources was relieved by South-to-North Water Diversion Project, it brings almost 2.79 billion cubic meters from south China,