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Ethical Issues of Cloning: Analytical Essay

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As scientists try to understand the existence of DNA and genetics, they soon discover the concept of cloning in biotechnology. Cloning is a process that creates exact copies of DNA on different molecular levels. For example, there is molecular cloning where copies of DNA fragments are made. There is also cell cloning, as well as organismal cloning. Moreover, there are three different types of cloning that are currently known in biotechnology. First, there is recombinant DNA technology which is also known as DNA or gene cloning. This is where DNA fragments are transferred from one organism to a self-replicating genetic element which is then propagated in a foreign host cell. This type of cloning has different applications that can potentially lead to a diagnosis and treatment of various disorders. The second type of cloning is reproductive cloning. This is where genetic material is transferred from the nucleus of a donor adult cell to an egg whose nucleus has been removed. In order to stimulate cell division, chemicals are needed to be injected into the egg, to eventually allow it to reach a suitable age where it can be transferred to a female host’s uterus where it then continues to develop until birth. The third and final type is therapeutic cloning which is also known as embryo or reproductive cloning. This is the production of human embryos exclusively for research that will allow scientists to study human development and possible disease treatments. Cloning is a scientific and technological issue that must be recognized due to its raising of ethical implications. In this paper, both good and bad applications will be discussed, as well as a final verdict of a potential middle ground thoughts regarding reproductive cloning.

To start off, cloning is a technique that researches have initiated in the hopes of creating a better life for different species or organisms. One very beneficial use of cloning is drug testing, which is a potential method of determining causes and treatments of various diseases and mutations. Since clones are genetically identical to each other, their responses will be uniform to drug testing, making it easier on researchers as they have consistent results rather than varying ones, depending on the genetic makeup of the being. Another beneficial application of cloning is the creation of an extinct, or an almost extinct species. As some species are currently endangered and their population is decreasing tremendously, cloning is a method that could prevent extinction from happening, hoping that the lack of genetic variability would not decrease their chances of survival. *POSSIBLY ADD MORE*

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Despite these positive implications of cloning, they dispute with the negative implications that raise recognizable ethical issues. For instance, the technology that currently exists to make the cloning happen is very inefficient as very few embryos end up having the strength to develop into a healthier being. This evidently raises many safety concerns when it comes to reproductive cloning. Not only does it sometimes fail to achieve its goal of a healthy individual, it also produces additional unwanted defects that vay from birth size to mutations in the bones, lungs, heart. As a result, cloned individuals could be biologically damaged due to the inherent unreliability of cloning technology. Another huge ethical issue that involves cloning is the life that would result for those clones and their surroundings. Some would argue that since human clones would be genetically identical to humans, then they should be treated equally. That would mean that the human population would increase tremendously if many clones were made. They would eventually take over jobs, as they would be more intelligent and capable, resulting in competition, poverty and dissatisfaction among individuals. On the other side of the spectra, some would argue that they could be useful in replacing unwanted jobs and getting tested on in order to potentially develop cures to deadly diseases. That essentially means that the human clones created would be treated as slaves in a modern society where it is definitely considered immoral. Lastly, the clones would suffer a life with pressure that they would face from society due to expectations. Since they are considered ‘humans’ due to their genetic makeup, they will be expected to act a certain way and meet certain standards that humans have set throughout centuries. As a result, they would not have their own self determination or self discovery that would lead them to have their own unique life experiences.

An important view to consider is that of a religious view. Since religion currently plays a huge role in society, their views on cloning should matter greatly to researchers. First, some religions would accuse the defects or the death of the embryos as murder. As mentioned before, most of the clones created do not end up being strong enough to survive as a healthy being. And so, producing a cloned zygote that is most likely going to be unable to survive is considered to be equivalent to murder according to certain religions. This is because they consider the moral status of the embryo to be a soul, right when the sperm touches the egg. Another concern for religions is the attempt of replacing God. The only two ways in which a new individual should be created are divine creation and co creation, which are the only two natural orders. Divine creation is simply God initially creating humans (more specifically Adam and Eve) who were allowed to then co-create with their love for one another. Any other way of creation means that humans are attempting to play the role of God and thus disturbing the natural order of creation. For these two reasons, cloning is considered immoral regarding different religions.

In conclusion, it is possible to obtain a middle ground regarding this ethical issue. As Michael J. Sandel mentions in his article “The ethical issues of human cloning”, there are two most known different views on cloning. First, some would argue that there is nothing wrong with choosing their children’s traits that would ensure them a longer and a better life. Others would disagree saying that these genetic enhancements will impair the individuality of their children by violating their right to choose their own paths. In his article, he discusses many dangers of reproductive cloning enhancing the real trouble, which is whether it is morally correct to have its sole purpose to be creating children of a certain kind. This plainly portrays parents to want to master the mystery of birth. Finally, the middle ground suggests to consider the moral status of the embryo which was somewhat discussed earlier. Sandel suggests that instead of considering an embryo as a ‘thing’ where it is open to any use, or a ‘human’ who is due respect, consider an embryo as something in between. This allows research to continue as a way to enhance the lives of different humans, specifically humans. To summarize, cloning is a technological process that researchers have discovered as a way to obtain more knowledge and cure diseases. However, since it raises ethical and moral issues, it is important to consider a middle ground that would maximize the happiness and consider cloning a blessing to a healthier life.

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Ethical Issues of Cloning: Analytical Essay. (2022, September 27). Edubirdie. Retrieved November 27, 2022, from
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