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Expectancy Theory Of Motivation And Team Effectiveness

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Introduction

Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation considers different concept than other motivation-based theories like Alderfer, Maslow and Herzberg motivation models as Vroom’s theory do not provide with specific propositions about what motivates employees within organisations. Vroom’s theory, instead provides with a framework comprising cognitive variables which reflects individual’s diversified perspective regarding work motivation. From organisational behaviour standpoint, Vroom’s theory can have few implications concerning motivating employees as it identifies various factors that can be used for motivating the entire workforce alongside altering people efforts for performing the job in expected manner (Parijat & Bagga , 2014). Team effectiveness is another significant concept within organisational behaviour psychology that describes human accomplishments through the millennia and focuses more on social psychology considering group behaviour. However, since most of the contemporary workplaces recognised significance behind teamwork, the factors influencing and nature of teamwork have become a primary focus for researchers and organisational behaviour studies (Cooke & Hilton, 2015). This assignment will reflect upon both the concepts, expectancy theory of Victor Vroom and team effectiveness for organisational performance after reviewing key features associated with them as per current situation. This assignment shows both concepts with specific examples and thereby find how expectancy theory can guide business practitioners or organisations in bringing team effectiveness for achieving high organisational performance.

Expectancy theory of motivation

The expectancy theory of motivation developed by Vroom is among process theory of motivation which holds a considerable position within the current situation pertaining motivational theories. The expectancy theory is more realistic and comprehensive approach for motivation as compared to most of the other theories present in organisational psychology. Though it may seem complicated to understand, it fundamentally describes more common concept comprising employee psychology and states that employees will remains motivated only when their expectancy is accomplished that may cause them to behave in expected manner (Lunenburg, 2011). Every individual predicts what can be the consequences of actions performed by them and expectancy theory predicts whether an employee can work for the desired outcome or not after looking upon the motivational factors like career advancements, organisational ethical image, enhanced inter-personal relationships and doing interesting and diversified things. This theory puts emphasis on some critical aspects like rewards or valence, efforts, personal goals and performance or instrumentality. For instance, if an employee recognises that effective performance in the organisation will provide him/her a good rating that results in increased salary, the employee will try to have a better performance to get the increased salary. If no relationship is established between salary and performance rating, the employee will not be motivated as he does not receive any additional benefits for his performance, hence there might be chances of poor performance. Similarly, if another employee prefers going for reward attainment, then valence expectancy is positive as compared to the employee who shows indifference to reward that makes valence outcome to be negative for motivating such employee (Osabiya, 2015).

This theory also establishes relationship between the identified aspects and synthesises into one core theory of motivation. The value of employee perception is emphasised to find out what exactly motivates them alongside focussing upon utilitarianism. since employees expects to maximise self-interest and pleasure in them and to avoid any negative consequences that can have negative impact on their professional as well as personal lives. This theory also suggests that employee job satisfaction can be due to the result from excellent performance and not because of any other reason. Vroom’s theory is based upon contingency framework and sees that every individual is never motivated by same means (Lunenburg, 2011). This makes expectancy theory one of the most accepted framework for analysing employee motivation factors in organisations. Moreover, various tests conducted to prove accuracy behind this theory have resulted in positive outcomes which tends to prove supportive for managers and business practitioners. This theory again seems to be highly appealing due to its sensible features associated that explains factor of motivation after breaking them and segregating according to recognised stages. Another significant advantage seen is its feature that provides linkage between employee’s performance and efforts, rewards and personal objectives and rewards and performance. Thus, organisations can create work environment and culture that can potentially increase employee’s motivational level after understanding factors that can motivate or demotivate them. Parijat & Bagga (2014) however, finds few cons associated with expectancy theory of motivation stating that this theory proves that it is complicated as it involves several variable participations. Moreover, practical applicability is also questioned, that reveals few doubts regarding its appropriate use. In fact, few organisational behaviour researchers believe that the complexity seen within this theory not only makes it difficult to verify, but also makes it difficult to implement. Since every individual may not provide with reliable information due to unfavourable situation, willingness or time, making the motivation level calculation further lack perfect outcome as it is hard to calculate the level of motivation factors.

Team effectiveness

The concept behind teams and its role in organisations are invariably described as task force in which the success behind the completion of tasks are dependent on the level of cohesiveness and integration of organisational team members with specific objectives and business goals. The relationship can directly get influenced by roles performed by every individual present in the teams, level of organisational support and communication made between team members (Abuzid & Abbas, 2017). Team effectiveness related definitions though remains a much debatable topic according to (Cooke & Hilton, 2015). For instance, teams which are analysed according to their work performance or effectiveness, but with minimum explanation with what exactly is meant by both the terms are associated with team effectiveness. The term performance is found useful for denoting team capabilities either for making comparisons or assessing them in isolation according to the process undertaken by the teams. Nevertheless, the idea behind performance can underrepresent team effectiveness while contributing towards team mission. This further makes it difficult to understand whether the team will be effective under other conditions or not that may be required further and therefore, effective teams must be considered after measuring both effectiveness and performance (Deichmann & Jensen, 2017).

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Most of the contemporary researchers have found that team effectiveness is been substantially influenced by McGrath’s experimental input-process-output. Input encompasses collection of employee differences throughout the team for identifying their contribution provided in the team, team design features like resources and information and finally, nature of issues that are focused upon by team members. Process reflects the means through which team members motivation, behaviour, cognitive, affection or other inhibit characteristic combines to the available resources for meeting the task demands. Although process within teams prove conceptually dynamic, many scientific researchers assesses it during single point of time, due to which they are often taken as emergent states or static perceptions. In fact, recent research made on team processes represents process as a dynamic actions or communication’s sequential pattern (Cooke & Hilton, 2015).

A research conducted by Deichmann & Jensen (2017) finds that self-formed teams in organisations plays a significant part in developing innovative ideas, however, it comes with several pros and cons altogether. The study conducted by the authors states that the idea generation features barely supports pros in team effectiveness, rather enters lose development of ideas which are less likely to succeed in the workplace. For example, in a multinational organisation, one can understand that risk management may require facilitation of more team effectiveness especially during early development stages of ideas. But, as the teams are formed and ideas get developed, employees tend to avoid working for teams since they associate the risk bearing idea more disadvantageous for themselves and professional career and thus becomes less participate during decision making. This is most common during the cases when ideas prove less radical and when the idea developer has got no previous experience in developing such ideas. This reflects that team effectiveness do not always result in bringing positive outcome rather makes team members difficult to get along during several phases. Even, team formation phases prove very lengthy and time-consuming process in organisations due to which most of the workplaces prefer task delegation system rather than looking upon team effectiveness features. Furthermore, conflicts and clashes turn entire team effectiveness into disasters thereby hampering overall organisational work environment. For example, suppose a warehouse team reorganises and implements new inventory system and few selected and qualified team members are required to arrive much earlier than duty hours, they start conflicting with each other due to early arrival times. If one member is called early than other one, he/she may show resistance to work extra thereby putting entire project at risk (Sanyal & Hisam, 2018).

Can expectancy theory of motivation provide organisations with enhanced team effectiveness?

Higher performances in organisations through team effectiveness makes employees believe about their capabilities and successful accomplishments that results in effective concentration regarding particular tasks provided. Reflecting upon team performance expectancy required for performing unique tasks, team effectiveness influences team members differently, that depends upon the degree of individual professionalism and their job position. Bureaucratic work in organisations results in work alienation, though have highly formulated structure restricting team involvement in major tasks. However, such organisation’s managers have to face various difficulties especially during complicated situations like, change management, risk management and stakeholder management due to which they seek professional skills required for carrying each task precisely (Suciu, Mortan, & Lazar, 2013). For example, junior staff may face issues from the work tendency due to insufficient expertise required for carrying particular task especially when they are entered into senior member teams within organisation management. Similarly, employees with high professionalism or capabilities may not except developing their skills within other unacceptable work environment where the work requires no specific expertise, thereby making them feel isolated due to holding special skills. Here, expectancy model applied by organisations can help boosting employees facing both the situations by providing them with rewards that can keep motivating them to perform for themselves and fulfilling their monetary desires. Such performance management in team can not only increase professionalism, but also develop interest in them to learn new things from different perspectives.

As discussed earlier, one of the Vroom’s expectancy model’ element, valence is an emotional orientation through which people get motivated to achieve desired outcome in the form of rewards or compensation. Valence combined with performance measurement promotes recognition of accomplishment within team members whereas negative valence like punishment and job pressure can affect team efforts. From the organisational behaviour perspective, performance and valence can prove effective in developing faster promotions and high incentives for completing desired tasks (Kozlowski, 2018). Similarly, organisational teams are provided with shared vision using group incentives that are derived through organisational performance leaving apart few issues that may be realised due to negative valence. Since teams may show disparities in benefits or salary due to difference in work performed by them, potential disparity may concern team effectiveness and overall organisational performance. Looking upon Vroom’s expectancy theory for motivation shows that when team members think that their work performance in teams is higher, they desire higher expectation thereby resulting in increased rewards. Thus, high performance indicators have positive relationship with employee job satisfaction that concludes to the notion that teams who provide better performance will be rewarded with more team rewards and will ultimately reflect job satisfaction and enhanced team effectiveness (Park & Kim, 2017).

Conclusion

The above information shows that Vroom’s expectancy theory benefits organisations by making them realise the psychological processes than can cause motivation among individual thinking, beliefs, probabilities, perceptions and other factors that can influence them for performing in an expected behaviour. Team effectiveness highlights the significance behind how team models and frameworks use team work and organisational operations to determine contributions made by individual behaviour and subsequently organisational performance. The cluster or various variables comprises team characteristics and to build an effective team, organisations considers including team resources, cohesiveness, power distribution, homogeneity and effective team climate. Thereby revealing significance behind team effectiveness that can directly influence team processes and organisational productivity. Remarkably, the significance behind team effectiveness is considered as essential tool within organisational behaviour, however, most of the employees neglect its values that leads them in performing deficiently along with showing poor performance. Therefore, it is proposed to examine how Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation can impact team effectiveness for enhancing organisational performance. Both team effectiveness and team expectancy has positive relations that can aid business managers in considering expectancy framework while motivating team members.

References

  1. Abuzid, H. F., & Abbas, M. (2017). Impact of teamwork effectiveness on organizational performance vis-a-vis role of organizational support and team leader’s readiness. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 12(8), 2229-2237.
  2. Cooke , N. J., & Hilton, M. L. (2015). Enhancing the Effectiveness of Team Science. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
  3. Deichmann, D., & Jensen, M. (2017). I can do that alone…or not? How idea generators juggle between the pros and cons of teamwork. Strategic Management Journal, 39, 458-475.
  4. Kozlowski, S. W. (2018). Enhancing the Effectiveness of Work Groups and Teams: A Reflection. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(2), 205-212.
  5. Lunenburg, F. C. (2011). Expectancy Theory of Motivation: Motivating by Altering Expectations. International Journal of Management, Business and Administration, 15(1), 1-6.
  6. Osabiya, B. J. (2015). The effect of employees’ motivation on organizational performance. Journal of Public Administration and Policy Research, 07(04), 62-75.
  7. Parijat , P., & Bagga , S. (2014). Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of Motivation – An Evaluation. International Research Journal of Business and Management, 7(9), 1-8.
  8. Park, S., & Kim, S. (2017). The Linkage Between Work Unit Performance Perceptions of U.S. Federal Employees and Their Job Satisfaction: An Expectency Theory. Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences, 52, 77-93.
  9. Sanyal, S., & Hisam, M. W. (2018). The Impact of Teamwork on Work Performance of Employees: A Study of Faculty Members in Dhofar University. Journal of Business and Management, 20(3), 15-22.
  10. Suciu, L.-E., Mortan, M., & Lazar, L. (2013). Vrooms’s Expectency Theory. An Empirical Study: Civil Servant’s Performance Appraisal Influencing Expectency. Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences, 39, 180-200.

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Expectancy Theory Of Motivation And Team Effectiveness. (2022, Jun 09). Edubirdie. Retrieved January 29, 2023, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/expectancy-theory-of-motivation-and-team-effectiveness/
“Expectancy Theory Of Motivation And Team Effectiveness.” Edubirdie, 09 Jun. 2022, edubirdie.com/examples/expectancy-theory-of-motivation-and-team-effectiveness/
Expectancy Theory Of Motivation And Team Effectiveness. [online]. Available at: <https://edubirdie.com/examples/expectancy-theory-of-motivation-and-team-effectiveness/> [Accessed 29 Jan. 2023].
Expectancy Theory Of Motivation And Team Effectiveness [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Jun 09 [cited 2023 Jan 29]. Available from: https://edubirdie.com/examples/expectancy-theory-of-motivation-and-team-effectiveness/
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