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Fabrication Of Fuel Burner For Re-using Automobile Engine Oil

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Abstract

Waste oil may be a resource that can’t be disposed of arbitrarily because of the presence of pollutants. Discarded used oil is disposed into the ground by landfills which is not environment friendly. It leads to serious Environmental Pollution like ground water and soil contamination. But by reusing this waste oil into an alternate energy source, it will helps to conserve and reduce natural energy sources by reducing land and water from oil pollution and prevent energy crises in future. Managing this waste oil for heat recovery by technic of atomization and fabricate the oil burner by using engine oil of (SAE5W40/SAE10W40) grades. By burning this used engine oil by delivering the resulted energy for domestic foundry purpose and even for commercial use in future.

Keywords: waste lubricating oil, Atomization, Reusing, Environmental pollution, Waste management, Alternate energy source.

Introduction

Lubricanting oil is used for reducing the friction between two or more moving part of various machinery and equipment, reducing materials wear and improving the efficiency of equipments and machinery for fuels and energy saving. Access to lubricants is essential to any moderns societies and not only does lubrications but reduces friction and wears by interpositions of a thin liquids film between two moving surfaces, but it removes heat, keeps the equipment clean and also prevent them from corrosion. One of the most important applications is in petrol and diesel engine oil. 90% of lubricanting oil contains mineral oils and apprioximate 10% additives. Various additives gives performance characteristics of the lubricants. Various additives are: Antioxidants, Anti-wear, Metal deactivators, Corrosion inhibitors, Rust inhibitors, Friction modifiers, Extreme Pressure, Anti-foaming agents, Viscosity index improvers, Demulsifying/Emulsifying, Stickiness improver, provide adhesive property towards tool surface (in metalworking), Complexing agent (in case of greases).

Used oil is defined as the petroleum derived or synthetic oil which remains after applications in lubrications, cutting purposes, etc. After a certain period of time, these lubricating oil loose their properties and cannot be used again. Operating temperature degrades the propersties of lubricating oil and thus leading to reduce the properties such as: Viscosity, Specific gravity, etc. Lubricating oils contains dirt and worn metal parts. With continous use, the lubricating oil loses its properties which must be replaced with fresh one. One fact about base oil is that, never gets spoiled, it only gets dirty. Lubricating oil cannot be used again for further use by two main reasons: accumulation and contaminants in the oil and changes of chemical reaction in the oil. The main contaminants are listed below.

  1. Water: Fuel converts into CO2 and H2O. For 1 litre of burning of fuel, a litre of water is created. This normally goes out through engine exhaust when it is hot, but when cooled it can runs down and collects in the oil. This makes sludge formation and rust.
  2. Soot and carbon: This leads to oil getting black. Due incomplete combustion, during warm-up with a rich mixture.
  3. Lead: Tetraethyl lead, is used as an anti-knocking agent in petrol and passes into the oil. Used engine oil contains 2% lead.
  4. Fuel: when unburned fuel passes into the lubricant, during start-up.
  5. Road dust: When this passes in the engine, small particles of silicates, wear metals, iron, copper and aluminum gets inside engine and they wear. The recycling of used lubricating oil was first known in the year of 1930. Initially the used lubricating oils were used to produce energy, but after treatment oils were re-blended to engine oils. Due to necessity of environmental protection, the disposal and recycling of waste oils have become very important. The recycling of waste lubricating oils can be done by 3 methods, Reprocessing, Re-refining and Destruction.

Literature Review

Madhusudan (2017) [1] has collected the rejected products, which has certain properties similar to petroleum distillates and is a non-renewable energy source. He converted used oil into a valuable fuel and Paying considerable attention on heat recovery, from used engine oil by a good means of environmental sound recycling practice, by designing and fabricating an oil burner which burns the used engine oil and delivers the resulted energy for domestic and commercial purposes.

Kazuaki Hashiguchi (2016) [2] has Aimed for the increase in use of combustion technologies for heavy oil fuel, containing lot of carbon residues and in order to develop burners for heavy oil with excellent environmental performance, by studying the structures of atomizers and swirles. He confirmed that the developed structure was attained for reduction of particle size by 38% in a spray test and that the developed swirler were undamaged even after years of continuous operation in actual equipment.

Merai Yash P. (2015) [3] had said that burning of used oil, in kilns and incinerators produces lots of ash and carcinogens causing environmental pollution. Waste lubricating oil is a product which cannot be disposed of randomly due to the presence of pollutants. With respect to economic problems and environmental protection, there is a growing trends in regeneration and reuse of waste lubricants. By proper recovery methods and refinement process, a lot of valuable product can be obtained. The objectives of re-refining process is to remove the degraded additives, contaminants and to restore the properties of the oil identical to the standards provided by SAE. Only 1/3rd of the energy is required for manufacturing of re-refined used oil, when compared with refine crude oil to produce virgin base oil. Therefore, re-refining is considered by many as their 1st opinion, for conserving resource as well as to minimize the waste and reducing damage to the environment.

Jiafeng Yao (2014) [4] Geometries were considered to have a great influence, on the spraying characteristics of atomizers. In his research paper, he studied a “pre filming twin-fluid atomizer” patented by Sadatomi and Kawahara (2012), in which liquid atomization is performed by supplying compressed air alone into an internal mixing chamber and by negative pressure the water is automatically sucked by an orifice. In his experiments, we studied spraying characteristics influenced by the geometrical parameters, such as orifices of different opening area ratios and different shapes, porous rings with different porous diameters, and different sizes of atomizer. Higher spray performance was obtained by a small sized atomizer, with a circular orifice with an opening area ratio of “0.429” and a porous fiber ring with porosity of “25 µm”. His present results provides a proper guidance for practical applications with different requirements of spray characteristics.

M. J. Madu (2014) [5] had made a burner for the atomization and combustion of used engine oil and kerosene for the application of foundry. This setup was constructed and tested to reduce the cost. The nozzle, springs, screws, tank and the fuel hose were the materials used for its construction. He even carried out some tests, to determine the time taken for some selected materials to melt. The thermal efficiency of the burner was around 66%. The experiment also resulted that the density of the mixture, decreases with an increase in the temperature making it easy to mix and use for combustion.

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Shri Kannan C (2014) [6] in this paper the used oil is collected from automobile service stations and the oil is subjected to dehydration, vacuum distillation followed by solvent extraction. The solvent used for solvent extraction, was recovered by atmospheric distillation process. Lastly additives are added in the re-refined oil. The properties of these lubricating oil like density, viscosity, viscosity index, flash point, fire point, pour point, cloud point and total acid number were studied and compared with the standards given by the Society of Automotive Engineers.

Ihsan Hamawand (2013) [7] had performed recycling of waste engine oils by using acetic acid. This recycling process was developed which gave him some comparable results, with some of the conventional methods. This gave the recycled oil, the potential to be reused in car’ s engines after adding some required additives. The advantage of using the acetic acid is that it does not reacts or it only reacts slightly with base oils. The recycling process, takes place at room temperature. The writer displayed that the base oils and additives are affected slightly by the acetic acid. By adding 0.8 % vol of acetic acid to the used oil, two layers were separated and a transparent dark red colored oil with a black dark sludge at the bottom of the container. In this paper the writer also compared the results with other recycling methods. This comparison showed that, the recycled oil produced by acetic acid treatment was compared with other conventional recycling methods. This research has displayed that, used engine oil can be recycled by using glacial acetic acid.

Motshumi J. Diphare (2013) [8] The recovery techniques which he discussed, in his paper were reprocessing, re-refining and incineration of waste lubricating oil. The major objectives of his paper were to analyze and compare the regenerative technologies, and creating the platform for government, recovery techniques by private sectors are work in progress.

Nabil M. Abdel-Jabbar (2010) [9]. had performed an experimented, and investigated that waste lubricating oil rerefining adsorbing process, by different adsorbing materials. Adsorbing materials such as: – oil adsorbent, egg shale powder, date palm kernel powder, and acid activated date palm kernel powder were used. In his investigation, the adsorption process over fixed amount of adsorbing materials at ambient conditions. In his process, the adsorption/extraction process was able to deposit the asphaltic and metallic contaminants to lower values of waste oils. He also found that, the date palm kernel powder with contact time of 4 hrs, has given the best conditions for treating the waste oil. The recovered solvent was also reused. He even found that, the activated bentonite, has the best physical properties followed by the date palm kernel powder. The carbon residue, ash content, and aspheltene content were decreased up to 68.2%, 72.9%, and 92.3% respectively. His process also decreased the amount of heavy metals present in treated oil. The solvent recovered from the process was also reused again.

Udonne J. D. (2010) [10] focused on comparative study of 4 methods for recycling of used lubrication oils, they are: – 1) Acid/clay treatment, 2) Distillation/clay, 3) Acid treatment and 4) Activated charcoal/clay treatment methods. The test carried out on the recycled lubrication oil include:- flash point, pour point, specific gravity, metal contents, viscosity and sulphur contents. The results from his tests shows that, increase in viscosity from 25.5 for used lube oil to 86.2 for distillation, 89.10 for acid/clay treatment and 80.5 is for activated/clay treatment.

S. O. Ogbeide (2009) [11] in his paper he identify a different method for reusing, by adequately spending oil. He also found that cost of recycling is relatively low, when compared with the production of crude oil, as there is a reduction in purification stages. The research carried out by the writer discovered that when 25 liters of oil used and recycled appropriately, 10 liters of lubricating oil was obtained. Whereas 220 liters of crude oil was required to produce the same 10 liters of oil.

Jennifer M. Granholm (2007) [12] has stated that the requirements for burning used oil depends on the natural oil, source oil, and physicalchemical spec of oil, or has satisfied the required “ product” conditions. She said that ‘although it looks complicated, the Department of Environmental Quality supports recycling, which includes burning of used oil when possible, and research groups were available to discuss regarding the topic.’ But these businesses requires an inventory for fuel storage and must have a transport facility for same. This group have also found some vendors for used oil burning equipment online.

Critical Review

Different authors have studied recycle techniques for oil recovery from used oil by acid clay treatment and activated charcoal treatment. Some authors have reduced the viscosity by adding additives, blends and oil layer separation by adding 0.8% of acetic acid. Atomization technique used in foundry and atomizer pre-filming twin fluid. Filtration and Separation of oil absorption process by eggshell powder, date palm kernel powder and removal of metallic and asphaltic contents.

Dehydration vacuum distillation, solvent extraction and reduction in purification stages by re-refining processes. All the above focus on industrial waste oil recovery for the industrial purpose but since there is large amount of wastage of automobile oil whose oil recovery is not explored has a huge potential within the background of indian auto industry to recycle and recover the used engine oil for burning.

Conclusion

Re-refining of waste lubricants could result in both environmental and economic benefits. The system made by us burns the oil perfectly with yellow color flame at around 1000 C which can be used for multi purposes.

References

  1. Burning Used Oil By Michigan Department Of Environmental Quality Jennifer M. Granholm, Governor www.michigan.gov
  2. An Investigation To The Recycling Of Spent Engine Oil S. O. Ogbeide* Department Of Mechanical Engineering, Ambrose Alli University, P.M.B 14, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria.Received 22 June 2009;Accepted 24 February 2010.J.
  3. A comparative study of recycling of used lubrication Oils using distillation, acid and activated charcoal with clay methods Udonne J. D. Department of Chemical and Polymer Engineering, Lagos State University, AGOS, Nigeria.13 December, 2010
  4. Waste Lubricating Oil Treatment by Adsorption Process Using Different Adsorbents Nabil M. Abdel-Jabbar, Essam A.H. Al Zubaidy, and Mehrab Mehrvar
  5. A Comparison of Waste Lubricating Oil Treatment Techniques Motshumi J. Diphare, Edison Muzenda, Tsietsi J. Pilusa and Mansoor Mollagee.
  6. Recycling Of Waste Engine Oils Using A New Washing Agent Ihsan Hamawand , Talal Yusaf ,and Sardasht Rafat Faculty of Engineering and Surveying, National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba 4350, QLD, Australia.
  7. Studies on Reuse of Re-Refined Used Automotive Lubricating Oil Shri Kannan C, Mohan Kumar KS, Sakeer Hussain M, Deepa Priya N and Saravanan K Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai , Tamilnadu, INDIA.
  8. Design, Construction and Testing Of a Burner That Uses an Admixture of Used Engine Oil and Kerosene for Foundry Application. M. J. Madu, I. S. Aji, B. Martins Graduate Assistant, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Borno state
  9. Influence of some geometrical parameters on the characteristics of prefilming twin-fluid atomization Jiafeng Yao, Michio Sadatomi D.
  10. Re-refining of used lubricating oil. Merai Yash P. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 3, March-2015 [11] Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Technical Review Vol. 53 No.4 Development of Environmentally-Friendly Heavy Oil Fired Burner.
  11. Design and Fabrication of Oil Burner, Based on Used Engine Oil as a Sustainable Source of Energy. Madhusudan S, Vismay K G, Gururaja

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Fabrication Of Fuel Burner For Re-using Automobile Engine Oil. (2022, February 27). Edubirdie. Retrieved February 1, 2023, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/fabrication-of-fuel-burner-for-re-using-automobile-engine-oil/
“Fabrication Of Fuel Burner For Re-using Automobile Engine Oil.” Edubirdie, 27 Feb. 2022, edubirdie.com/examples/fabrication-of-fuel-burner-for-re-using-automobile-engine-oil/
Fabrication Of Fuel Burner For Re-using Automobile Engine Oil. [online]. Available at: <https://edubirdie.com/examples/fabrication-of-fuel-burner-for-re-using-automobile-engine-oil/> [Accessed 1 Feb. 2023].
Fabrication Of Fuel Burner For Re-using Automobile Engine Oil [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Feb 27 [cited 2023 Feb 1]. Available from: https://edubirdie.com/examples/fabrication-of-fuel-burner-for-re-using-automobile-engine-oil/
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