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Food And Agriculture Biotechnology, Its Ethical Concerns

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First product of biotechnology is cheese because chymosin was added to bitter milk exposed only by exposing milk to microbes. Yeast is another microbe which use manufacture fluently observing in production of bread, vinger, fermentation product.

Firstly in 1946 researcher become aware of that DNA can move across individuals. It is clear that there are many ways for transfer of DNA, found at a large scale. Most important way is antibiotic effect slowdown in disease causing bacteria. In 1983 firstly GM plant introduced by antibiotic-resistance tobacco plant. By introducing virus-resistant tobacco for very first time china commercialize/ introduce transgenic/ GM crop in market, in 1990. Biotechnology product ‘’ flavor saver tomato’’ in 1994 authorized for marketing by food and drug administration. This modification increase shelf-life of tomato.

Food derived from GM crops

Many transgenic crops used as source of food. No transgenic animal selected to use as a source of food transgene salome has FDA approval. Mostly crops which are transgenic sold as product that is further undergo processing to convert into food contents.

Fruits and vegetables


conventionally was under the harm of ring spot virus. Now a days 80% Hawaiian papaya is genetically engineered and no conventional way to control this virus. This automatically controlled by GE/ help of biotechnology.


GM potato was resistant to late blight by addition of two gene blb1 and blb2 resistance gene from Mexican Wild potato solanum bulbo castanum. As in 2005 in Canada and USA Zucchini was grown genetically to resist 3 viruses.

Vegetable oil

Transgenic crops like vegetable oil have very low amount of protein or DNA vegetable oil case for cooking purposes in prepared food. Oil extracted from seed undergo the process of refining and then hydrogenation take place which convert liquid into solid and remove all non-triglycerides component.

Canola oil

This oil is 3rd most using cooking oil in world with genetic modification against herbs killer and for betterment of composition of oil. Oil is also used in cosmetics like lipsticks.


It is corn which was firstly grown in 1997. 86% of this crop was under biotechnology processes like genetic engineering/ genetic modification in 2010 in UDA. In 2011 about 32% maize was GM/ transgenic. Cotton about 93% is GM.


USA imparts 10% sugar from other foreigner and 90% locally in USA sugar extracted from sugarbeet and sugarcane. About 95% of the sugarbeet acres planted grown with genetic modification. The GM sugar beets are same in their composition like non-GM as it contains no DNA, protein and contains only sucrose.

Qualification of GMO in food

Protocol for testing of GM food. Different molecular technique to quantity GMOs like DNA microarrays, qPCR. These based on testing genetic elements like p355, pat.

GM food merits and demerits

Whenever we want to use anything. Any product we at the same time think about its advantages and disadvantages

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In biotechnology, product we take gene from one specie and insert into DNA of other specie. GM food in some cases alleviating the disorder and in some cases by inserting or replacing the correct gene like GM

  • Remains successful in elimination of allergy causing gene from food.
  • Genetically engineered food is energy rich containing high minerals, nutrients other benefits as compared to traditions
  • Food that can grow in any season while traditional in any season while traditional crops require specific season.
  • These have good taste , long shelf life and less danger of spoiling good.

It increase the productivity of food and provides more source of food as compare to traditional. The places where the soil is not competent for production of food can grow GM.

Due to natural occurring capacity of herbicide and insecticide GM crops less costly than traditional crops. So this food is chemical free and environmental friendly.


Biggest danger about GM food is that its not beneficial for human body, it can lead toward disease. These foods recently introduce at commercial level so we don’t know more about effect of these on human body.

  • Many people do not prefer GM food due to know health effects.
  • Many manufacturer of GM food do not label it because they think about loss of business which is ethically wrong.
  • Many religious and cultural associations think that GM is unnatural way of producing food. So people remain away from this food.
  • Many religious or cultural communities are not in favor of transferring gene of 1 specie into another like animal gene into plant or plant gene into animal.

Consumer attitude towards GM food

Consumer concern with health impacts they want food with less risky health issues. Therefore, manufacturers made policies about guarantee of GM food. Supervised a survey to detect those features which effect the consumer demand towards the GM free food elements. Pre-factures of Drama-Kavala-Xanthi in 2009.

People influenced by factors in GM free products are

  • Product which are authorized as GM free
  • Desire about the environment friendly & more nutritious value product
  • Trade issues
  • Cost and quality

Studies of above than 3 month in 2 year duration from 2-5 generations on consequences of diet include GM rice, maize. Many parameters for examining by Biochemical analysis, Histological examination of particular parts, detection of DNA. These overall study reviews gave outcome that there is no significant nutritional or any other parameters difference b/w GM and Non-GM.

Gene transfer studies in human volunteers

January 2009 human feeding study conducted on outcome of GM food. This review study involves volunteers who already had removed their large intestine for same medical issues.GM soy was provided to volunteers to see effect either DNA of GM soy move toward bacteria naturally occurring inside human gut 3 out of 7 volunteers have transgene. They didn’t survive passage across gastrointestinal tract .Alternative study found DNA from M-13 virus, GFP, and even ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in blood and tissue of ingesting animal. These two studies of possible effect of GM food on animal no significant difference in nutritional value as compare to GM free. No novel DNA or protein identified in animal feeding GM food.

Agriculture biotechnology

It is backbone of Pak-economy major portion of our economy depend upon the agriculture playing supporting role for mankind by providing variety of food with more nutrtious values with genetic modification .some of the agroeconomic strategies involve fertilization of soil,insect,pest resistance qualities due to their genetc modification .its best one example is Green revolution .these genetic modification rise crop productivity and efficiency .several techniques of biotechnology to modify crops

  • Marker assisted selection
  • Invitro propagation of plant
  • Breeding strategies
  • Micropropagation

Economic development assesses the influence of pest resisting GM crops including two types of trait i) insect resistance ii) herbicide resistance .it is estimated that output of GM crop is the product of potential output and loss due to damaging effect of pests.yeild impact of genetic changes is higher than alternative steps high pesticide effect than it will be ineffective yield effect its one trait which effect crop

GM has many healthy impacts on our body and beneficial for our environment slow down use of chemicals like herbicide , pesticide slow down the danger of death. Like Golden rice which has more nutritious value containing gene which is converted into Vitamin A. its deficiency lead toward blindness through genetic modification health impact rise. In 2008 & 2012 studies gave outcome there is no negative impact of GM on health GM crop has a lot of effect on biodiversity as example non-target effect of BT decrease diversity of insect. herbicide tolerance slow down the presence of weeds which decrease the food for seed eating birds

GM crops ,vegetables ,fruits have some safety issues .people mostly don’t want to purchase GM label food due to unhealthy impacts. Many people think about GMOs these are genetically modified these changes disturb the natural effects of food .They think people are playing with GOD they are going against the natural activities by inserting new gene artificially.

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Food And Agriculture Biotechnology, Its Ethical Concerns. (2022, February 18). Edubirdie. Retrieved August 12, 2022, from
“Food And Agriculture Biotechnology, Its Ethical Concerns.” Edubirdie, 18 Feb. 2022,
Food And Agriculture Biotechnology, Its Ethical Concerns. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 12 Aug. 2022].
Food And Agriculture Biotechnology, Its Ethical Concerns [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Feb 18 [cited 2022 Aug 12]. Available from:
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