Forms, Effects And Identification Of Deception

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Deception is a demonstration or articulation which deceives, conceals reality, or advances a conviction, idea, or thought that isn't correct frequently done for individual advantage. Deception can include dissimulation, propaganda, and sleight of hand, just as interruption, disguise, or camouflage. There is additionally self-Deception, as in dishonesty and bad faith. It can also be called, varying subjective ramifications, bluff, mystification, feign or confusion (Deception, 2020). It is a significant social offense that frequently leads to feeling double-crossed and doubt between relationships. Deception abuses social principles and is viewed as a negative violation of expectations. Many people anticipate companions, friends, and even strangers to be honest (Guerrero, Anderson and Afifi, 2007). This allow an easy social stand with people and allow smooth conversations with easier understanding of each other differences. Forms of deception used in many instances include Lies, Equivocations, Concealments, Exaggerations, Understatements (Deception, 2020). This report will show the negative effects it has on society as a sole being and as a group. Showing the later effects for the deceptor and deceptee.

What are the different forms of deception?


A lie is a strong untruthful statement. The speaker plans to cause the next person to believe in the truth of their statement that the speaker believes to be false. Henceforth, a lie that has a goal to mislead. The speaker guarantees the listener that the statement that was made is valid by using other means like facial expressions, body language and misleading facts (Mahon, 2020). Example being: person 1 saying “I lost my homework” when intentionally not doing the work given and person 2 accepting the information as true because a sad facial expression is shown by person 1.

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Forms of equivocations

There are typical forms of equivocations or double speaking. Saying one thing with a subliminal message or information underneath what is spoken. This either makes information indirect, ambiguous, or contradictory (Equivocation: Definition and Examples |, 2020). The strategy of this deception is whereby the speaker of an argument causes it to show up, or gives the impression that two words have a similar importance, when they don't. it’s a vague way of giving misleading information (Equivocation, 2020). Example: “I want to be absolutely clear with the people of the world: The United States does not torture.” (George W. Bush, 2006). This message is very clear but it was later found out that this statement is only true under a special definition of “torture” that’s not shared globally. Making this statement misleading but not a lie (Equivocation: Definition and Examples |, 2020).


Concealment is another form of hiding information 'Concealment' is done when the speaker doesn’t uncover all the important information of the matter/argument/situation (not every bit of relevant information/inadequate explanation) to the listener (Research Involving Deception or Concealment, 2018).


Exaggeration is when a person makes a statement and represent the statement in a more extreme and dramatic way. This is done by when the speaker overreacts to the statement by stretching the truth and overplaying by using language techniques like hyperboles. This will give the listener an increased emotional and mental understanding of the statement then later either accepting it as truth if the statement is backed with evidence to convince the listener (Exaggeration, 2020). Example: “Her brain is the size of a pea.” (Examples of Hyperboles, 2020)


Understatements are the exact opposite of Exaggerations it’s when a statement is said in a more relaxed compressed/lessened way to make the statement seem (unreliable/not useful/not important etc) to the listener they are done in 3 main ways comedic, modest and polite. Example can be “You are out to dinner with a friend who spills food down the front of her white shirt. An understatement would be: 'Really, it's hardly noticeable.' (Polite)” (Examples of Understatement, 2020).

How does deception affect people?

While we expect most people to be honest with us the average human being lie several times a day lies can be good “white lies” to spare someone’s feelings or big ones that undermine ones integrity (Deception | Psychology Today Australia, 2020). This will affect the relationship between both parties and individual-self. Deception is very likely to happen with oneself as well and cause a false self-believe of information that can be harmful or have a positive effect (Deception | Psychology Today Australia, 2020).

Deception affects the person being given false information in many ways ((Oldenburg, 1998). A test was conducted by a university professor Wetzel. The test conducted of him having to add a lie in each lecture and compare the number of students who failed in the upcoming test. After a couple of week students started questioning everything Prof Wetzel said showing the negative effect he mentioned “you have to be paranoid to question everything and that’s not a price human what to pay to gain accurate information from others”. Having to question everything and lead a normal life is very hard and socially depressing having not to trust people and information relied. This can lead to further mental, social and physical complications that can affect one’s life in a very negative way (Oldenburg, 1998).

Deception can also be done by lying to oneself this is done when someone deny or push away the relevance of an information opposing the evidence and logical argument. This is said by doctors that when a person lies to themselves it’s to convince themselves of that truth to not be revealed as a liar. This can have detrimental effects on social mental and physical health causing complications in the long run (Self-deception, 2020).

How to identify deception

Detecting deceptions can be very easy and most have signs and forms that will allow the, deceptive people usually don’t refer to themselves and describe events in passive voices.

Deceptions are hard to spot even when using polygraph test. Understanding this many psychologist around the world have been cataloguing deceptions techniques to counter fight it by analysing facial, body language and linguistic expressions. Psychologist are sure that not all can funnel down to liars with positive facial expression regarding the test but that have a higher chance of finding the truth. This has got psychologist and AI experts to come together and make a software that will detect everything at a better rate than humans (ADELSON, 2004).


In conclusion deception plays a huge role in society daily life that allow everyone gain an upper hand in Desires, Relationships and Emotional bliss. Knowing that detecting it will cause panic with society knowing the unknown can cause instability between everything that allow a comfortable human life. This can be used for good or bad, not knowing how to detect it fully accurate. Its better left alone to allow the small freedom of privacy the human mind has at this time and moment. Deception will forever affect humans in Mental, Social and Physical aspect of health never to be fixed because society will forever enjoy the unrestrained life granted to them.


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  13. 2020. Self-Deception. [online] Available at: [Accessed 24 June 2020].
  14. ADELSON, R., 2004. Detecting Deception. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 June 2020].
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