Throughout all the body systems covered in PNUR 113 came with a lot of different ways to keep those systems, along with the tissues, organs, and cells that are involved, healthy. In this essay, I will discuss the five systems that stood out to me the most while learning about anatomy and physiology along with interesting promotion techniques and different health promotion strategies of each. The 2 systems are the Integumentary and Nervous systems.
The nervous system is the body’s main coordinating system that sends different types of sensory responses throughout the entire body. It is divided into two different divisions, the central nervous system; which contains the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system; which contains the cranial and spinal nerves. When different areas of the nervous system are injured or even when mental health problems occur, it can be very difficult for the body to properly function. Health problems within the nervous system can occur suddenly, such as an accident, or can occur slowly, creating a loss of function. An example of a disease that can come on slowly and result in loss of function is Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Multiple Sclerosis affects the axons in the optic nerve, brain and spinal cord. It causes problems with vision, muscle control, balance and general motor coordination such as bladder control. The disease tends to be progressive causing more damage the longer you have it. Unfortunately there is currently no cure for multiple sclerosis or many of the other neurological diseases but most of them have medications that can help decrease severe attacks and make living with the disease a little bit easier. Preventing head injuries, such as a concussion is also key to maintaining a healthy nervous system; concussions can create an onset of mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety and even psychosis. Wearing helmets while doing activities that could potentially result in head injury, such as sports like hockey and football, can be very helpful.
The Integumentary system makes up a decent amount of your body weight and in my opinion is probably one of the most underappreciated systems in the body. It is constantly being worn away, attacked by microorganisms, irritated by the sun and other environmental chemicals. It is the body’s very first line of defense against antigens and providing physical protection from environmental hazards, essentially the first place where you and the outside world meet. The cutaneous membrane of the integumentary system consists of the epidermis and the dermis. The epidermis protects the dermis and helps prevent water loss and pathogens from entering. It also has sensory receptors that detect touch, pain and temperature. The dermis has two layers, the papillary layer which protects and supports the epidermis and the reticular layer, the blood vessels in this layer help with thermoregulation throughout the body. The accessory structures in the system are hair follicles, exocrine glands and nails. Protecting yourself from the sunlight is very important for your skin, too much sunlight will damage the epithelial cells and the deep tissues. People with fair skin who are constantly in the sunlight are at a higher risk of developing skin cancer, their melanocytes are not able to protect them from the UV rays. The sun usually has it most intense UV rays during the middle of the day, avoiding this and at the very most protecting yourself by finding shade and wearing sunscreen will help. Using sunscreen with a high SPF will also help as you get older will help with cosmetic problems such as wrinkling. Another health promotion strategy with the skin is stress management. When you become stressed out it causes your body to release more cortisol hormones into your body, this can result in oily skin making it more sensitive and contribute to more breakouts.