Homeostasis is the propensity to resist external influences, allowing internal conditions to maintain stable and relatively constant for an organism’s optimal survival. The heath of an organism is dependent heavily upon the effectual homeostatic regulation of the human anatomy. If a homeostatic imbalance occurs illnesses and diseases arise due to regulatory mechanisms being unable to return to equilibrium and can ultimately lead to fatality. Systems depend on various components to ensure the health of organs such as glucose and insulin. The importance of glucose and insulin is explored as cells require these for energy and survival. Without successful regulation of these diseases and other illnesses arise.
Homeostasis is key to the successful function and health of the human anatomy. The importance of homeostatic regulation is vital because if a body system fails to regulate to a stable equilibrium, conditions will deteriorate and can ultimately lead to death of the organism. Diseases and illness arise when homeostatic mechanisms are unable to return to the desired stable equilibrium. This effect is generally referred to as homeostatic imbalance. Homeostasis is regulated by independent mechanisms that include thermoregulation, osmoregulation and chemical regulation. A negative feedback system the most prominent feedback loop within biological systems. Thermoregulation is an example of negative feedback systems, when internal temperatures rise, the hypothalamus and skin receptors sense this imbalance. The imbalance (stimulus) triggers an order from the brain. This order creases a response to the imbalance by excreting sweat from the skin surface to help decrease the body temperature and return to equilibrium, just as the body will shiver to aid the response to a temperature decrease. Osmoregulation excretes excess salts, water and urea through the urinary system and endocrine system where organs help to expel these unnecessary compounds. Chemical regulation requires different systems such as the nervous system, endocrine system, digestive system and respiratory system to maintain equilibrium by releasing the stimulus when hormone levels rise or fall. When the stimulus is prompted cells act correspondingly to maintain cell function. The process includes the release of insulin and glucose into the blood to respond to increasing and decreasing glucose levels. Chemical regulation will also prompt an increased breathing rate in response to carbon dioxide levels in the bloodstream. The nervous systems perpetuate homeostasis by controlling various parts of the human anatomy. The nervous system consists of the peripheral nervous system and central nervous system. Peripheral nerves are outside the spinal cord and brain which transfer to limbs and organs. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. Hypothalamus in the brain is vital for homeostatic regulation as it controls involuntary function (medulla oblongata). Homeostasis is vital in maintaining stable conditions as cells depend on this for their survival and function, without these processes and proteins will not properly function.
Homeostatic mechanisms premeditatedly keep the internal environment within boundaries. If cell function is ineffectual the homeostatic balance becomes disturbed. This continual imbalance can lead to diseases. Disease and cellular breakdown can be caused from two specific ways: through toxicity, where cells die from excess waste products or deficiency, were cells do not receive what they require. This homeostatic disruption can cause your body to react in a way that may help or deteriorate the problem, based on influences. Apart from inherited influences (genetic), there is also various external influences that occur from environmental exposure and lifestyle selections. These influences impact the body’s ability to maintain homeostasis.
The brain is dependent upon glucose as its central energy source and effectual management of glucose metabolism is vital for mammalian brain physiology. Brain disorders are formed on the basis of a disturbance with the normal glucose metabolism as well as its interdependence with cell death pathways creates a pathophysiological basis. The human brain only contributes to 2% of the body mass although it is accountable for 20% of glucose-derived energy making it the foremost consumer of glucose. Glucose metabolism supplies the energy source for physiological brain function through the production of ATP which is the foundation for both neuronal and non-neuronal cellular perpetuation, together with the creation of neurotransmitters. Blood glucose levels can vary from various factors. Hyperglycemia, which is high blood sugar can fluctuate from many factors some including stress, menopause, illness, injury or surgery can all effect bloody sugar levels. Menstruation and menopause for women triggers a hormonal change that effects blood sugar levels. Emotional or physical stress prompts the release of hormones that can result in a high blood pressure. The human body utilizes insulin glucose to help create a state of equilibrium or homeostasis to cope with these fluctuations. Islet cells inside the pancreas are in charge of releasing glucagon and insulin. There is a variety of islet cells located in the pancreas, including alpha cells and beta cells. Alpha cells release glucagon and beta cells expel insulin. If the blood sugar becomes too inflated the pancreas will secrete more insulin. If there is a spike in blood sugar levels the pancreas will release glucagon to increase the levels. This state of balance enables sufficient energy to reach cells and prevents nerve damage that can occur with sufficiently high blood sugar levels. Blood glucose is key to supplying cells and the mammalian brain with sufficient energy to form a state of homeostasis.
An immoderate increase in blood sugar causes the pancreas to secrete additional insulin. Insufficient glucose levels cause blood sugar levels to continue to be high, this occurs when the body cannot covert enough glucose. Insulin enables cells to absorb glucose, which in effect reduces blood sugar and provides cells with sufficient glucose for energy. There are various symptoms consistent with a high blood sugar some of these include; urinating inordinately, as the kidneys try to expel excess glucose, slow healing, excessively hungry, unusual thirst, abnormal weight loss and/or itch, dry skin.
A decline in blood sugar levels prompts the pancreas to excrete glucagon, in an attempt to increase levels. When blood sugar levels become depleted the pancreas releases glucagon, instructing the liver to release stored glucose, causing blood sugar levels to increase. Meal delay, particular diabetes medication, nutrient deficiency and specific medical conditions contribute to a low blood pressure. Symptoms of low blood sugar may include; fainting, dizziness, weakness or a rapid heartbeat.
The development of diabetes occurs when insulin is unproductive or when the body is unable to produce enough of it. These factors form diabetes from inadequate blood sugar regulation. There are various distinct diabetic types which include type one, type two and gestational diabetes. Type one diabetes is an autoimmune condition that can often present itself at a young age. Here the immune system attacks insulin-secreting beta cells within the increase. Type one diabetics have abnormally high blood sugar although having low insulin levels mean they are unable to utilize much of the glucose in their blood. Type two diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, this disease is generally due to poor lifestyle choices. Type two diabetics have insulin resistance meaning their cells do not adequately respond when insulin directs them to absorb needed glucose from the bloodstream. Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that establishes in some women during pregnancy. Whilst a woman is pregnant the placenta supporting the growing fetus can impair the body’s ability to utilize insulin. This particular form of diabetes generally goes away after the baby is born.