The Covid-19 is the Coronavirus it is an infectious diseases caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-Cov-2 It was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and has spread globally, resulting in an ongoing pandemic.
The impact on society has been immense from complete lockdowns to people socialising to business closing and fear for the safety of people everywhere in the world. Lock down for business all over the world The Covid-19 outbreak has become one of the biggest threats to global economy and financial markets sending all stock prices and bond yields
Treatment or a Vaccine for the virus is crucial so that the world eventually is able to handle the virus and control the curb of the outbreak. This will enable our health system to be able to cope with the demand of the sick or infected at our hospitals. Possible therapies include targeting the infected cells only with drugs such as chloroquine or an antimalarial drug without killing uninfected cells. Using the cells from people who have recovered from COVID 19 and replicating this immunity in people that still have the disease. (FREEP2020)
DNA and RNA vaccines use fragments of genetic material made in the lab. These fragments code for a part of the virus (such as its spike protein). After the vaccine is injected, your body uses instructions in the DNA/RNA to make copies of this virus part (or antigen). Your body recognises these and mounts an immune response, ready to protect you the next time you encounter the virus. (NCIB2020) The vaccines can be quickly designed based on genetic sequencing alone, they can be easily manufactured, meaning they can potentially be produced cheaply and the DNA/RNA fragments do not cause COVID-19. (cenascorg2020)
However there are still no approved DNA/RNA vaccines for medical use in humans, hence their alternative name: next-generation vaccines. So they are likely to face considerable regulatory hurdles before being approved for use. Also they only allow a fragment of the virus to be made, they may prompt a poor protective immune response, meaning multiple boosters may be needed. (health2020) There’s a theoretical probability vaccine DNA can integrate into your genome which is why at this speed these vaccines can be designed, needing only the genetic sequence of the virus, is why these vaccines were among the first to enter clinical trials.
DNA advancements such as the use of genomes to see if a genetic explanation and information about whether a specific genetic variant is associated with the disease. Is there a genetic factor in whether people become infected in the first place or have serious or mild symptoms? (NCIB2020) Generally, a part of the genome known as the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is considered relevant as it establishes how the immune system responds to infections.
Immune response is an important topic of research into coronavirus as an overactive reaction can complicate symptoms. Another area of research is the gene known as ACE2, which produces a protein believed to be a principal route into human cells for coronaviruses.
Generally, a part of the genome known as the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is considered relevant as it establishes how the immune system responds to infections. Immune response is an important topic of research into coronavirus as an overactive reaction can complicate symptoms.
Another area of research is the gene known as ACE2, which produces a protein believed to be a principal route into human cells for coronaviruses. “That is something we will certainly be paying particular attention to,” says Mr Adam Auton, principal scientist leading the efforts of the projects on coronavirus research. “We need to develop therapeutics to help treat this disease.
Without Communication and Collaboration and Influence the breakthrough to the vaccine of the COVID 19 virus with the advancements of RNA AND DNA cannot be possible and below are some points of discussion. These advancements discussed already show how some this can aid the future vaccine of the COVID 19 virus. (arstechnica2020)
Communication and Collaboration
This concept refers to the fact that science is a global enterprise and relies on communication, International conventions and evidence from many sources across many disciplines and all over the world. International collaboration is often required in scientific investigation. In terms of Covid-19 and the plight to finding a suitable vaccine include the following examples.
The treatment ideas are being shared across the globe, how we have had to work together as a nation and research teams have had to work together to ensure the best solutions for society and the vaccine for of the virus.
Universities and institutions all over the world have had to collaborate ideas, without the use of collaborating ideas they would not be able to find some suitable theories to treat the virus. This collaboration and communication needed to also occur over zoom and emails due to the nature of the virus. An example is Harvard university detailed a paper where using computational tools, and collaborating via Zoom and Slack the students are designing a DNA origami structure to deliver a COVID-19 antibody protein directly to the immune system
To also contain the virus we have had to communicate through boarder closures and then when the boarders where opened we had a travel bubble between Australia and New Zealand. Communication is also vital when a vaccine is formed as to how we can communicate this safely as global communication is still the key as all scientist have had to collaborate there ideas in order to find a vaccine for the COVID 19.
All the RNA and DNA advancements already found will need to be shared and communicated all over the world to all scientist in order for a quicker vaccine to be found. (HARVARD2020)
Advances in scientific understanding in one field can influence another. The use of scientific knowledge can be influenced by social, economic, cultural and ethical considerations. In terms of Covid-19 we must consider how the vaccine needs to consider ethical principles, we cannot force people to get a vaccine, but of course we know it is something that must be enforced and we should be promoted to get as many people diagnosed quickly and therefore spread the contamination.
The vaccine will help the world’s current economic crisis, statistics of the economic collapse are demonstrated below in the graph. The vaccine will allow people to return to work and ensure the economy gets up and running again. There have also been cultural considerations that have been needed to be taken into account as some cultures may feel is against their beliefs to accept the vaccine for the COVID-19.
Nayana Jayarajan Vienna-based former journalist who now works on interreligious conflict resolution detailed that vaccine resistance by some religious institutions has been a recurrent challenge for scientists working to contain the disease. In one of the best-known examples, resistance to the vaccine by religious leaders and politicians in parts of northern Nigeria in 2003 led to a resurgence of the disease, which then took years to roll back. This resistance was occasioned by rumours that the vaccines had been deliberately contaminated with anti-fertility drugs and were harming children. (Newindianexpress20)
The vaccine will benefit society by improving mental health, mental health is something majorly suffering due to coronavirus and a successful vaccine will allow for normality. Many people as the aged have been restricted to their homes in fear of getting the virus and this has caused isolation and depression.
Some people with low immune systems in the workforce have also have been advised to work from home and this has also caused isolation, anxiety and depression. When the vaccine is finally found people can take the vaccine and resume to their normal life patterns. Socializing with social distancing is affecting people’s morale without socializing people became depressed and bored and this would not do a person’s mental health any good.
In a leading paper from Dr. Hong Yin, psychiatrist for New Frontiers Psychiatric & TMS, notes that being deprived of connection and activity can be seriously detrimental to our wellbeing. “Loneliness leaves us a lot of time to get into our own heads and for some us, that’s a bad place to be alone. Pairing that with the lack of options of other activities for enjoyment to occupy our time, we can be left with way too much time that we’re not sure what to do with. Most of us need socialization to varying degrees, by not getting our psychological needs met is one risk factor for falling into a depression.” (MSNhealth2020)
It light of the advancements that RNA and DNA among leading scientist all over the world have already and the sharing of this information, the world has come together through communication and collaboration and through considering the influence this has had of society and the community a vaccine is imminent. The sharing of knowledge and ideas to develop a vaccine is a race and as this deadly virus has affected the whole world the winners will be people in societies in every country. Our ability to use technology to look at genes and look at abnormalities is expanding by the resources by many scientists all over the world. This will keep going until a vaccine is found.