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Hunter Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors And Treatment

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What is a Hunter Syndrome?

Hunter syndrome, additionally referred to as genetic disease kind II (MPS II) could be a rare hereditary condition nearly solely moving boys. Hunter syndrome is one in all variety of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). it’s calculable that the condition is gift in one in 162 000 live births.

Hunter syndrome will have an effect on any a part of the body and causes variety of signs and symptoms. within the majority of individuals with Hunter syndrome, the signs and symptoms gift between the ages of two and four years.

Many of the signs and symptoms are common childhood complaints, and it’s the mix of them which will indicate Hunter syndrome. The symptoms of Hunter syndrome are completely different in every person, therefore there’s no single typical patient expertise.

What causes Hunter syndrome?

Hunter syndrome is one in every of variety of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). LSDs are conditions within which cells are unable to properly break down sure molecules. In Hunter syndrome, AN accelerator referred to as iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S) is deficient or typically utterly absent.

In a healthy cell, I2S breaks down specific molecules, referred to as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). These molecules were antecedently referred to as mucopolysaccharides, that is why Hunter Syndrome is additionally referred to as genetic disorder kind II (MPS II).

If I2S is deficient or absent, GAGs build up, that prevents the cell from functioning properly. All healthy cells (except red blood cells) create the I2S protein, thus its deficiency will have an effect on any a part of the body. this can be why Hunter syndrome might have symptoms in many organs, and is named a multisystemic unwellness.

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Symptoms

Hunter syndrome symptoms vary and vary from delicate to severe. Symptoms aren’t gift at birth, however usually begin around ages two to four because the harmful molecules build up.

Signs and symptoms may include:

  • An enlarged head
  • Thickening of the lips
  • A broad nose and flared nostrils
  • A protruding tongue
  • A deep, hoarse voice
  • Abnormal bone size or shape and other skeletal irregularities
  • A distended abdomen, as a result of enlarged internal organs
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • White skin growths that resemble pebbles
  • Joint stiffness
  • Aggressive behavior
  • Stunted growth
  • Delayed development, such as late walking or talking

What are the risk factors for Hunter syndrome?

People are at a better risk for Hunter syndrome if they need a friend with the illness.

Boys have a better risk of heritable the illness than ladies do. This distinction exists as a result of the illness is connected to the sex chromosome. ladies inherit two X chromosomes, whereas boys have only one. If a woman inherits the faulty factor, her different sex chromosome will offer the required catalyst.

How is Hunter syndrome diagnosed?

Treatment o The identification of Hunter syndrome is typically tough thanks to its slow onset and overlapping symptoms with alternative childhood issues. Early signs that recommend a identification embody facial changes within the kid. The baby doctor then sometimes completes an in depth personal case history and physical examination of the individual. Blood, urine, and/or tissue samples may be tested for either the deficient protein or excess mucopolysaccharides. Definitive identification is finished by a genetic analysis of the child’s X chromosome(s). there’s no routine newborn screening obtainable to diagnose Hunter syndrome. However, in families with noted Hunter syndrome, antenatal testing of the humour or placental tissue is also obtainable and may verify the identification in an exceedingly craniate.f Hunter Syndrome

What is the treatment for Hunter Syndrome?

Currently, treatment is meshed toward managing symptoms and complications as there’s no cure for this progressive unwellness. Treatments rely on the organ(s) concerned and might embody help with respiratory, physiatrics to take care of functions, drain of fluids to make up within the brain and/or medulla spinalis, heart valve replacement and alternative treatments like behavior management. Some physicians utilize specific protein medical care to switch child’s deficient enzymes. The treatment is termed protein replacement medical care (ERT) mistreatment AN IV – infused enzyme (Elaprase). it’s still being refined at the side of sequence medical care to switch the abnormal a part of the sex chromosome.

Prenatal testing of the fluid that surrounds the baby or of a tissue sample from the placenta can verify if your unborn child carries a copy of the defective gene or is affected with the disorder.

References

  1. ADAM, Unknown. Sex-linked recessive. [Online]. [16th November 2019]. Available from https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002051.htm
  2. Unknown, Unknown. Sex-linked Traits and Disorders. [Online]. [16th November 2019]. Available from https://www.thoughtco.com/sex-linked-traits-373451
  3. Unknown, Unknown. Hunters Syndrome: Risk Factors, Causes, Symptoms and Treaments. [Online]. [16th November 2019]. Available from https://diseasesdic.com/hunters-syndrome-risk-factors-causes-symptoms-and-treatment/
  4. Unknown, 2019. What is Hunter syndrome?. [Online]. [17th November 2019]. Available from https://www.huntersyndrome.info/public/about-hunter-syndrome/?gclid=CjwKCAiA_MPuBRB5EiwAHTTvMVhzNXTvv8qoTiWP9-mrvKc-jHDf0m-30fNd
  5. Unknown, 2019. Hunter syndrome. [Online]. [17th November 2019]. Available from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hunter-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20350706
  6. Unknown, 2019. Hunter syndrom. [Online]. [17th November 2019]. Available from https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/17932-hunter-syndrome
  7. Unknown, 2019. [Online]. [Unknown. 17th November 2019]. Available from https://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=221010
  8. Unknown, 2019.Hunter syndrome. [Online]. [17th November 2019]. Available from https://www.medicinenet.com/hunter_syndrome_mucopolysaccharidosis_ii_mps/article.htm#what_is_the_treatment_for_hunter_syndrome
  9. Unknown, 2014. Disorders of the Sex Chromosomes. [Online]. [13th November 2019]. Available from https://www.wikilectures.eu/w/Disorders_of_the_Sex_Chromosomes

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Hunter Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors And Treatment. (2022, February 17). Edubirdie. Retrieved August 19, 2022, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/hunter-syndrome-causes-symptoms-risk-factors-and-treatment/
“Hunter Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors And Treatment.” Edubirdie, 17 Feb. 2022, edubirdie.com/examples/hunter-syndrome-causes-symptoms-risk-factors-and-treatment/
Hunter Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors And Treatment. [online]. Available at: <https://edubirdie.com/examples/hunter-syndrome-causes-symptoms-risk-factors-and-treatment/> [Accessed 19 Aug. 2022].
Hunter Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors And Treatment [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Feb 17 [cited 2022 Aug 19]. Available from: https://edubirdie.com/examples/hunter-syndrome-causes-symptoms-risk-factors-and-treatment/
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