Intelligent Street Light System: Analytical Essay
Active street lighting has emerged as an essential factor in strategies for a resource-efficient economy and realization of sustainable growth. In the outdoor area, lights represent approximately 40 % of the total energy consumption at night and have much energy saving potential. If passers-by or vehicles, summarized as traffic elements, are not located near street lamps, it is not energy-efficient to turn them on.
The idea is to activate street lights only when they will be used to maintain secure and safe traffic reasons. An automated lighting or Light on Demand (LoD) system is required to implement moving light. By automating the street lighting system, light automatically on / off in partial road areas based on the IR sensor data. The highest savings, while respecting secure traffic and safe personal, has been achieved with this designed model.
Keywords – LDR, IR, Traffic Monitoring, Decision Making, Energy efficient.
Smart Street Lighting System is an intelligent street lighting control system that has to light up at the right time and perform seamlessly. Smart street lighting system is basically an intelligent system which is designed such that the street lights automatically switches OFF and ON based on the sunlight. Street lighting system meant for providing safer traffic conditions, safer pedestrian environment and it signify a improvement to the city’s architectural, touristic and commercial output. The main motto of Smart Street Lighting system is to monitors the status of temperature, light, and power consumption in LED street lights and to automatically on/off the street light based on the sensor. By implementing such type of system that can perform individual dimming and ON/OFF switching of the street lights becomes an easy task.
Municipal road lighting has the task of contributing to traffic safety on roads during the dark hours of the day. For a long time, many municipalities were forced to reduce or switch off street lighting at night due to financial problems. Conventional lighting shutdown has a negative impact on many areas of society. The risk of accidents increases, the quality of life decreases as same as the attractiveness of a city. The LED offers the function of continuous dimming, in contrast to a similar energy-efficient fluorescent energy saving lamp. This essential functional advantage has, so far, hardly been used in LED street lighting.
In the actual state, LED lamps, such as conventional lamps with half-night switching, are either activated or deactivated completely to save power. The pervasive use of LEDs in public street lighting, however, allows new strategies of lighting with the inclusion of dimming. Automatic dimming control, which not only reduces energy consumption but also offers longer life and less maintenance to cut the system cost. The idea is to activate street lights only when they will be used to maintain secure and safe traffic reasons. Automated lighting or Light on Demand (LoD) system is required to implement moving light.
Rich research is available on these smart street lighting system.
Moeenuddin Md. Mohsin at all. proposed street lighting system is highly energy efficient and automated. It uses ZigBee – based wireless devices due to which street lamp system becomes more efficient. ZigBee network i s connected to GSM through computer which is located in base station. Sensor combination is used to control and guarantee the desired system parameters. The information is transferred to a control terminal using ZigBee network which is used to check the pr ominence of the street light. Appropriate action is taken whenever system fails, by observing the status of street light.
Gul Shahzad, et al. suggests a framework for solar power and wirelessly connected group of LED lights, which are switched on and off based on the presence of traffic on the highway. When replaced with LED lights, it saves around 80 % of energy over previously-installed metal halide bulbs.
Liuyi Ling, et al. focuses on the utilization of photovoltaic power applied in LED street lighting and an intelligent lighting system is developed. Addition to that a Zig bee based wireless communication module has been developed for potential monitoring the LED street lights for future work.
Ming Hwa Sheu, et al. explores how the embedded system monitors the road status and output control instructions. As fog or rain is detected, the embedded system immediately instructs the power IC to drive multi-color LEDs for generating the lower color temperature light. An intelligent LED street light which integrates multicolor LED, power driving IC, and embedded image processing is proposed.
Zhixiong Ke, et al. introduces a wireless street light control system based on ZigBee network, which realizes on/off control, power adjustment and fault monitoring. The system gets the street lights parameters and realizes remote monitoring through ZigBee communication.
Florian Knobloch et al. introduced the deterministic model to control street illumination depending on traffic needs for improving energy efficiency. The light on demand (LOD) system incorporates the traffic velocity into the model and generates results that are more relevant to real-time traffic needs while ensuring safety and security.
Bhagyashre Beeraladinni et al. Briefly describes street light automation PIR (passive infrared) Sensor is used to detect the objects in motion and LDR (light dependent resistor) to detect day/night condition based on the luminance (light).
Müllner focuses on one of the solutions for this problem, i.e. by building smart street lights which will reduce power wastage due to unnecessary lighting of street lights regardless of traffic density and at odd hours. Another method to save power using this technique is further elaborated in the paper as well.
K.H.S.D.ABHISHEK et al describe a scalable, holistic and efficient solution that provides lighting only when necessary (according to the instant weather conditions or the presence of persons and vehicles) with the objective of reducing the related cost in the municipalities, helping the economic recovery. The illumination level will be conveniently regulated, thus avoiding over lighting and glare.
Pilar Elejoste et al focuses on wireless communication technologies, will minimize the cost of investment of traditional wired systems, which always need civil engineering for burying of cable underground and consequently are more expensive than if the connection of the different nodes is made over the air. The deployed solution will be aware of their surrounding’s environmental conditions, a fact that will be approached for the system intelligence in order to learn, and later, apply dynamic rules. It also provides tangible solutions to reduce energy consumption according to the contextual needs, an exact calculation of energy consumption and reliable mechanisms for preventive maintenance of facilities.
Chen-Wei Yang et al. introduces a two-lane street with pedestrian paths based on the IEC 61499 standard. The proposed system can exploit real-time sensing information of individual road users while conforming to traffic safety-related requirements for road lighting.
Decreases the energy consumption with minimal overall cost is a popular exploration area in terms of street lighting systems. In this paper, we give a brief review of different methodologies of street lighting system.
The literature reviewed shows that much research has been devoted to such a systems. The efficiency and accuracy reported in the literature survey can be increased in the future with advances sensor and technologies.
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