Over more than three decades, ISIS has been designated a terrorist organisation by the United Nations and many individual countries, following by its cruel actions and violent conflict. The majority of the information of ISIS are known by the videos of its behaviors or other types of executions. The member of ISIS are consists of different religious background, ages and also agendas. Moreover, The former followers of Saddam Hussein’s Baathist regime in Iraq make up a substantial portion of the organization. In the term of Saddam Hussein, President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003, he was regarded as one of the significant member of Iraq revolutionary of the Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party. Especially during 1979, Saddam Hussein used his authority and also rose the power he hold for further movement. For instance, there were some of the movement, which also made the huge influence until nowadays.
One of the biggest movement he made is that he maintained the power during the war between Iran-Iraq and also during the Gulf War as well. He was widely condemned for his cruel action towards Iraqis, and from the data provided by NPR, the total amount of Iraqis who were brutally killed by the Saddam’s government and also its security services in every different purges ways is relatively estimated up to 250,000. During 20 March, 2003, The Iraqi government and military ended with collapsed within three weeks of American military invasion. According to the Dr. Jerrold M. Post,’Saddam Hussein genuinely sees himself as one of the great leaders of history, ranking himself with Nasser, Castro, Tito, Ho Chi Minh, and Mao Zedong, each of whom he admires for adapting socialism to his environment, free of foreign domination. Saddam sees himself as transforming his society. He believes youth must be ‘fashioned’ to ‘safeguard the future’ and that Iraqi children must be transformed into a ‘radiating light that will expel’ traditional family backwardness. Like Mao, Saddam has encouraged youth to inform on their parents’ anti-revolutionary activity. As God-like status was ascribed to Mao, and giant pictures and statues of him were placed throughout China, so too giant pictures and statues of Saddam abound in Iraq. Asked about this cult of personality, Saddam shrugs and says he ‘cannot help it if that is what they want to do.'(1990) He was such a ruthless political leader who wanted to build his own capital within his dreams of glory and also, one of the reason he ended to be captured by American forces after being hiding in a hole in the ground near a farmhouse in ad-Dawr. was his perspectives towards pollution was too narrow and dangerous, that many members of the international community regarded him as bellicose tyrant. After Saddam Hussein’s force got declined, the former followers of his continued to protect their own religious and faith, that’s why there are majority of Saddam Hussein’s followers still active in ISIS organization, and basically, the reason and aim that encouraged them joined ISIS are to be striving for an eventual worldwide Caliphate- an ‘islamic state’,while it claims to be fighting the West, it frequently targets other Muslims and seeks domination over them.
Following the timeline of the rise of the Islamic State of Iraq, during 2003, the United States overthrew the Saddam regime in Iraq, and there was a political vacuum situation in many parts of northern Iraq. Zarqawi and others took the opportunity to enter Iraq under the banner of ‘base’. They took advantage of Sunnis dissatisfaction with the U.S. military and the government supported by the U.S. army. and became the third figure of Al-Qaeda in the name of ‘Iraqi Al-Qaeda Branch’. Following to the January 2006, some Sunni tribes and organizations formed the Joint Mujahideen Committee against the United States. On December 13 of the same year, they announced the establishment of the Islamic State of Iraq, a state of unity of politics and religion. According to Michele J. Gelfand from CNN News, ‘Surveying over 1,200 Iraqis in 2014, just one week before ISIS took over Mosul and other Sunni territories in Iraq, it was founded that nearly 80% of Sunnis reported feeling unsafe in their neighborhoods — up from only 22% in 2011, shortly after US troops had withdrawn.’ (2018) In 2011, the Syrian Civil War broke out, moreover, ISIS first sent some armed forces into Syria in the name of the ‘victory front’, became the most effective anti-Bashar armed force, and controlled many checkpoints along the Syrian-Iraqi border. Then ISIS main forces entered Syria one after another, and officially issued the ISIS ‘State Number’ in April 2013.
According to Bethan McKernan, ‘Raqqa was for the most part a quiet countryside town before Syria’s war broke out. Now, it’s infamous around the world as the heart of Isis’s so-called caliphate. The town’s pre-war population of 700,000 people has borne witness to every stage of the civil war. First there were peaceful protests that began against Syrian President Bashar al-Assad during the Arab Spring in 2011. Then, fighting between the government and rebels.'(2017) The Syrian Democratic Forces scattered debris in the old urban areas of the eastern front line of Raqqa, Syria, on 25 September 2017. Syrian fighter planes, backed by U.S. special forces, are working to clear the last remaining fighters from the Islamic States from their ramshackle Fortress Raqa. In addition to that, From the information provided by Jason Burke,’ In 2015, with a weakened Isis unable to offer anything other than violence, the defections started and rapidly snowballed. A collective yearning to restore the military, political and technological superiority over the west enjoyed by Islamic powers a millennium ago – or the conviction that the end times are near – proved insufficient to convince communities to fight and die for the Isis cause. ‘(2017) As the result of this war, the hospital and stadium in Raqqa were defended mostly by the foreign members from the ISIS. In the current status, the Kurdish-led ‘Syrian Democratic Army’ continues to fight extremist groups in the city of Laka, Syria. According to media reports, the campaign of ‘Syrian Democratic Army’ to recover Laka has entered the final stage, and there are few areas under the control of extremist organizations in the city.
From the perspectives of Bassem Mroue from The Associated Press,’ U.S. officials have said in recent weeks that ISIS has lost 99.5 percent of its territory and is holding onto fewer than 5 square kilometers in Syria, or less than 2 square miles, where the bulk of the fighters are concentrated. But activists and residents say ISIS still has sleeper cells in Syria and Iraq, and is laying the groundwork for an insurgency. The U.S. military has warned the group could stage a comeback if the military and counterterrorism pressure on it is eased.'(2019) The United States should move strategically eastward, and the instability in the Middle East may become the restraint of the United States. Only by stabilizing the situation in the Middle East can the United States return to Asia with all its strength. From this point of view, the United States would not want a mess in the Middle East. However, although the United States does not want chaos in the Middle East, it does not want stability in the Middle East. If the Middle East becomes stable because of the strategic shift of the United States, it proves that the Middle East strategy of the United States is the cause of the Middle East chaos, and the United States will lose its trust in the Middle East. Never let this happen. In addition, if the Middle East is stabilized by the departure of the United States, it means that the United States is no longer required to intervene. The United States has no excuse to intervene in Middle East affairs. Moreover, the heart diseases of the United States in the Middle East are Iran and Syria. The current chaotic situation is more directed at Syria, which is the biggest restraint and suppression of Iran. Without ISIS, the Syrian government has basically stabilized the civil war and controlled the situation. The United States is using ISIS to disrupt the situation in Syria. Therefore, the United States needs to maintain a certain degree of chaos in the Middle East, which is in line with the United States global hegemony strategy.
In fact, the United States hopes that the Middle East will maintain a certain degree of chaos, which has a direct relationship with China and Russia. Russia has a certain influence in the Middle East, and Russia has been stirring up the situation of the United States in the Middle East. In recent years, China has been increasing its financial and emotional investment in the Middle East. The U.S. strategy moving eastward is bound to weaken its presence in the Middle East. The United States will surely worry about the influence of China and Russia in the Middle East by taking the opportunity to compete with the United States.
If the Middle East is stable, it will be more conducive for China and Russia to take advantage of the void. And if the Middle East is unstable, because China and Russia have limited strength, they dare not easily go deep into the Middle East. To a large extent, the United States has created a certain amount of chaos, which can prevent China and Russia from deeply intervening in Middle East affairs. This is also an important reason why the United States has created chaos in the Middle East.
Nowadays, in the international society, there are 13 million Syrian refugees and internally displaced peoples in search of safety, shelter, a home and a future across the globe. The root causes of the Syrian refugees crisis are religious war between countries and internal actions including ISIS. This prolonged, dismal, fratricidal war, which is happening in Syria, is related to ISIS, Russia and America. In order to ensure the basic daily condition of these refugees, most European political leaders behave in a rational and compassionate manner seeking urgent solutions, but resulted in anti-immigration and refugee rejection and violence. But still there are some of neighbor countries accepted them earnestly, for instance, German Chancellor Angela Merkel is committing Germany to welcoming a larger number of refugees and is putting pressure on other EU countries to proportionally increase their intake. As more and more refugees are accepted by different countries, there are some serious problems becoming to surface at the same time, for instance, illegal immigration, high rate of terrorism. In the meanwhile, since the unrest in Syria, a large number of Syrians have taken refuge in Lebanon. According to Alexander Betts, ‘In Lebanon, the Sunni municipalities we spoke with have been the most welcoming. Elsewhere, Hezbollah-run Shia areas have become the least welcoming, with Christian areas ranging across the spectrum. Confessionalism has mattered because of the predominantly Sunni identity of Syrian refugees – assumed rightly or wrongly to be supportive of the Syrian Revolution – by Hezbollah which is allied to the Assad regime. However, this has also been shaped by class dynamics and importantly, the personalities of particular mayors.’ (2014) Some Syrian refugees have lived in Lebanon for six to seven years. Despite the successful evasion of the fighting, according to the United Nations survey, many refugees are living in a worrying situation. According to UNHCR statistics, by 2015, Lebanon had received 1.2 million Syrian refugees and more than 2,500 refugee camps. Although UNHCR has stopped accepting new Syrian refugees at the request of the Lebanese Government since 2015, considering the capacity of acceptance, the resettlement of more than one million refugees has also put considerable pressure on Lebanon.
As the refugees population increase, western countries acceptance rate was not meet the demand. Too many refugees have been locked in crowded “refugee processing centers” in these neighbor countries for far too long. Their lives are wasted, as the UN Refugee Agency is unable to find a permanent home for them. One of the solutions be considered is that UN Refugee Agency should encourage more and more countries including Asian countries to accept them. Considering different languages and life habits, these host countries need to provide refugees with basic jobs and education, which can let them fit into the foreign society and give them freedom to live, instead of banning them to a restricted life. UN Agency has a duty to let every country know that the majority of refugees are skilled professionals and they used to have normal careers in their own countries, thus, they should not be regarded as a burden in the world. In fact refugees are not only regarded as the people who are not able to keep their daily standard, actually they have shown relatively creativity in inventing sustainable livelihoods for themselves, and since before they forced to leave their own home country, most of them were having their own career, for instance, food stalls, eating places to farming and livestock, fish farming and endless other economic activities. They can make contribution more than local government and citizens imagined.
Moreover, many world leaders are trying to solve and discuss refugees crisis, but there are even no refugees take part in developing ideas about how to solve this problem. Therefore, more and more refugees need to be involved. In addition, there are some of residents who concerned about their safety when refugees enter their country. In this situation, what governments should do is not reject their entrance, but they should increase security to avoid conflict. Furthermore, According to Drake, M who is from the Mirror website, ‘over 50,000 refugee babies born into exile without a country in refugees camps and around 70 percent of Syrian children born in Lebanon are without an official birth certificate.’ (2016, March 12) As citizens who live in peaceful countries, we need take some useful actions, for example, establish school to teach them since they also can make contribution on our society and they are part of economic system. We need to give hope to the next generation that they are still part of our society and they still can find jobs in different countries. As far as I am concerned, the best solution to solve the refugee problem is that America, Russia, and more countries cooperate together first to fight against ISIS, since the Islamic State consistently and systematically defies international law. Everyone in the world needs to prevent and stop evil together first, and then countries can negotiate about current issues together in order to provide citizens with harmonious environment.
The Syrian war shows the obvious characteristics of mixed warfare, and has the complexity of overlapping multiple nature. At the same time, the Syrian war is the Syrian government’s anti-insurgency war, the conflict between the two major political groups, the international war against terrorism, and also mixed with the national war between Turkey and Kurds. The governments of Russia, Iran, Syria and Hezbollah in Lebanon are one of the two major confrontation groups. The other is the United States, the West, Saudi Arabia and Turkey. With the development and change of Turkey’s domestic situation, Turkey’s relations with the United States and the West deteriorated. Turkey joined the former camp and sent troops into Syria to attack Kurdish forces. There are two internationally recognized extremist organizations on the Syrian battlefield, the Islamic State and the Support Front, which are the branches of Al Qaeda in Syria. Although the Syrian government has been accusing the United States of secretly supporting the ‘Islamic State’, the Syrian war also includes military operations against these two extremist organizations by the Syrian government and Russia and the United States.
On the Syrian battlefield, the main body of the war is complex and pluralistic. Hundreds of countries and non-state actors participated in Syria’s military operations, of which more than 60 countries participated in the anti-terrorism coalition of the United States against the ‘Islamic State’, in addition to more than 80 opposition armed and extremist organizations on the battlefield, Russia also carried out the lastest intensive policy decision, diplomatic and legal actions towards to the Syrian war. From the Army University Press, Michael Kofman claimed that ‘Russia appears to have won at least a partial victory in Syria, and done so with impressive efficiency, flexibility, and coordination between military and political action. On the one hand, Russia’s embrace of the Assad regime and its Iranian allies, its relative indifference to civilian casualties, and it’s blanket hostility to anti regime opposition groups are fundamentally at odds with widely held U.S. views on Syria.'(2018) The Russia has been actively mediating the political settlement of the Syrian issue since 2013 and has led many negotiations between the Syrian government and the opposition. The Astana peace talks on Syria alone have been held for eight rounds. The ninth round of talks will be held in mid-May this year. Russia, Turkey and Iran also led the relevant processes such as the Sochi Syrian National Dialogue Conference.
From my points of view, the future prediction is that more and more countries try to accept Syrian refugees. Experience has proven how refugees have rarely been a burden or a threat to the host countries. The ideal solution toward Syrian refugees is to solve and stop the war problem in their home countries, but even the situation is more complicated and beyond our control. One thing that we can do is to give them hope that they are still part of our society, and they are able to start their new life in foreign countries by their own ability and support from others.