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Issues of Blacks and Hispanics in the United States: Analytical Essay

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Nowadays, it is obvious that our country will be a nation of ‘majority-minority, mixed with different groups of whites. Blacks and Hispanics are the effects of the way we live in this new world, surrounded by other cultures and customs. We are in a process that makes it clear that old social problems still exist but with less depth. Next, different aspects related to Blacks and Hispanics are discussed.

1. Historical background and current status of Blacks and Hispanics

The historical trends about Blacks and Latinos began around 1619, when the Africans arrived at our shores with commercial ends, and as a result of transatlantic trade, and the Caribbean. Later on, these areas became part of the United States.

The greatest emigration boom was caused after the First World War, which caused more than 6 million African-Americans to leave the South of the United States, and relocate to other places, due to better economic and labor opportunities, and greater social stability. This event was known as the Great Migration. Cities such as New York, Chicago, and Detroit, increased in% of African-Americans. (Bell, 2012,2017, p. 111)

On the other hand, ‘whites’ (non-Hispanics) have occupied about 80% of the population in general of the United States. The country used to have fewer Hispanics, Asians, and country natives by the end of the 20th century. The Hispanic and Asian populations have increased drastically since the late twentieth and twenty-first century, together with the African-American population, which is growing slower, accounting for less than 10% in 1930.

Nowadays, blacks and Latinos share in the same cities, although despite being from different worlds and trajectories in the country, they have developed an endless struggle for resources in common. There are two main ways that explain the current relationship between Latinos and blacks, one is the conflict of color, and the ‘supposed advantages that this feature can bring’, which seems to exclude one from the other. An example in the history of the USA that demonstrates this, is the first impression of Latinos to the presidency of Obama, at first they rejected it, and then they idolized it. So the elections of 2008 indicated that it is time to look beyond the physical and find other ways of thinking about color.

In conclusion, we have that we Hispanics remain isolated, while segregation, makes lesser blacks. But, in spite of everything stated, Hispanics have more opportunities to live in neighborhoods of ‘whites’ than blacks; bringing as a result of a growth of the population of Hispanics, either between the fusion between Latinos and blacks, or Latinos and whites.

2. Income levels of Blacks and Hispanics

Black and Hispanics’ salaries differ, due to the issues among ethnic groups, and the different races keeping been an unresolved problem. The gap between the pay between the different races have been reduced just a little in the last decades. In 2016, blacks represent 90% of their distribution, which means that they gained 68% on par with whites in their 90%, as in 1970. While the difference in income decreased from 1970 to 2016, Hispanics stayed even further behind at all income levels; leaning to the lower end of the tables, from the point of view of education and salary. In 2015, 47% of the foreign-born Hispanics of 25 years old had not managed to graduate from high school, compared to 13% of Americans in general. And only 11% of Hispanic immigrants had a minimum of a bachelor’s degree, compared to 31% of Americans in general. The influx of lower-skilled and lower-income immigrants probably exerted pressure on the growth measured in the income of Hispanics. In general, the contrasting experiences of these situations in the country with salary inequality, as well as the continued of gaps in incomes, could reflect differences in the characteristics of workers, as is the case of educational achievement. In addition, the historical legacy and the current impact of discrimination are considered a major source of income gaps in all groups.

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Based on the tables presented in our textbook (Bell, 2012,2017, pp. 121-123); we can arrive of the conclusion that the level of Income, education, and employment of Blacks, has increased in the las years. But, still remain a difference between black persons with a Bachelor’s and his payback in comparison with whites. This shows us that discrimination is a problem no resolved.

3. Relationships between Latinos and Blacks

The relationship between Latins and Blacks in general terms is considered favorable, although it is less common than Latinos (Hispanics), express that they get along well. Similarly, African-Americans express more frequently that blacks are discriminated against. This is based on the survey done by ‘Pew Research Center’. Despite being large minority groups in the US, both coincided in sentimental issues that represent both parties, although these only represent a smaller percentage. A common approach today is that both blacks and whites agree that immigrants, emphasize in Latins, reduce job offers for them. Research shows that at least 4 out of 10 Hispanics believe in the truth of this fact.

Surveys show that around the ¾ parts of blacks and Latinos maintain positive opinions among themselves. But differences always arise, such as racial discrimination, although blacks recognize that progress has been made in raising awareness in society, especially after the Obama Presidency. Although there are still limits on employment and housing. On the contrary of this, Hispanics, who think that blacks are not subject to discrimination in the areas mentioned above; is usually associated to opinions given by whites.

Another strong debate between Hispanics and blacks is illegal emigration. What is explained in that, Latinos and African-Americans say that this problem is caused due to specific situations in their countries? The opinions among the groups (Blacks, Latins) about this situation are almost the same in the states that have less Hispanic population. For other states with a large Hispanic population, there is a difference of 11% between Latinos and Blacks, which becomes a significant gap, and in these places 7 out of 10 people are Latino. (Pew Research Center Social & Demographic Trends, 2008)

4. Aspects of the growing Latino market

It is a reality that in the new United States, Latinos represent in some states most of the working class, contributing to the economy growth in different markets. Therefore, the American market has created several tools to reach the Hispanic public and therefore sell their products. The first step taken to help these new clients was to understand and support the different cultures. The creation of content or product that gives rise to an emotional connection with the origin of Latinos and Hispanics is an excellent way to get your attention and make them turn to your brand. Just as Spanish advertising attracts this type of public because Hispanics feel more loyalty to companies that develop campaigns in their language. Another aspect that is favored with the Latino market is online sales, in 2012 Hispanics contributed to the economy around $ 2.2 billion dollars for this type of sales.

On the other hand, I believe that, based on our being in a developed country, it is very important to respect basic concepts such as ‘American values’, without getting too far away from the Hispanic heritage. Also, how to differentiate Hispanics, such as people with Spanish-speaking descent, and Latinos from those who come from Latin America. Because in the last decades the second and third generation of Hispanics has grown in the Market, it has also been highlighted by immigrants with little culture or even none. Data taken from the US Census Bureau in 2016, show that Hispanics represent 17% of the population of the country, about 55 million in total. (Restrepo, 2016)

5. Organizational measures to improve experiences of Blacks and Hispanics.

Exist several recommendations for improving the work environment for Black and Hispanics. For example, open job positions that help to improve the talents and skills of the young Latinos. Good advice for the employers is to open clear routes and give precise directions for making better the opportunities of learning of the blacks and Hispanics. Employers can hold employees through the proper capacitation. In the latest search about the hire process based on race and ethnic origin, determined that these are determinant factors. Another piece of advice that organizations can take for retain Hispanics, and blacks that feel motivated and are hard workers, is become workers in places that value the perspective of Latinos and also to give to the young leadership positions always that they deserve it. In other hands, new work politics could be created with the purpose of balance between personal and labor life. Some examples of this can be, pay sick’s days, and benefits for millennial Latinos. Improve their experiences with a fair amount of employment, and salaries in base of the scholar level, High School or College students. Sometimes, community organizations and educational institutions can contribute to spreading the employer’s name between these societies (Hispanic and Black), with end of benefits the millennials transition to a better and more difficult labor market. Besides, that experience is an important indicator in the job search. The interventions, and creations of programs of internship and volunteers.


Although the population of the United States is changing, these are old lines of color. They are limits in which the effects of race and class combine with each other and form what social scientists call ‘cumulative disadvantage.’ Many studies have shown that several factors, such as education, employment, crime, housing, and medical care, are causally related. Setbacks in different areas act on each other in a way that accentuates negative results in general. Fixing one or two problems at the same time does not necessarily remedy the whole situation in such circumstances. For low-income blacks and Latinos, individual factors can often differ. For example, while one faces discrimination based on race, the other deals with exclusion based on immigration status. But nevertheless, they share that condition in which the whole is much worse than the sum of the parts.


  1. Key findings on the rise in income inequality within America’s racial and ethnic groups. RAKESH KOCHHAR AND ANTHONY CILLUFFO. (JULY 12, 2018) Retrieved from:
  2. Economic Policy Institute. New census data show strong 2016 earnings growth across the board, with black and Hispanic workers seeing the fastest growth for a second consecutive year. Valerie Wilson. (September 12, 2017) Retrieved from:
  3. Pew Research Center. Do Blacks and Hispanics Get Along? (JANUARY 31, 2008) Retrieved from:
  4. 10 Best Practices for Marketing to Hispanic Consumers. October 25, 2016, by Sergio Restrepo, VP Global Digital Marketing Services, Lionbridge Retrieved from:
  5. Media Post. Is The U.S. Hispanic Market A Growth Market? Jose Villa (May 25, 2017) Retrieved from:

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