Levels Of Aggregation Of Hate Crime

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Hate crime is hard to characterize, measure, and clarify. In the wake of condensing a portion of the main applied issues and hypothetical points of view, we talk about the viable challenges related to information assortment. Even though the research writing stays little and to a great extent descriptive, ongoing research has started to relate hate crime examples to financial cycles, population streams, and changes in the world of politics. The task ahead is to stretch out these analyses to different settings and levels of aggregation of hate crime.

Imagine you are a man or a woman approached by a hater that throws acid in your face because you a transgender or because of your race or because of your religion, how would you feel? or what will you do about it?. Now before I dive into this very controversial subject, I should probably define what hate crime is so you will have a better understanding of what I am talking about…

Hate crimes are unfortunately a common occurrence within our society and as an outcome, are a consequence of discrimination. These criminal acts committed are based on a bias against an individual or group based on their race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, disability, and religion. Two words with very high meaning. Hate crimes are occurring in new york lately, some operate the news, some go on social media and others don’t even make it to the point of any social knowledge at all. Hate crimes are targeted attacks that should not be taken carelessly.

Discrimination is a serious issue that needs to be addressed, particularly due to the criminal activity that is acted based on this idea causing violence and harm that impacts the victims and our society as a whole. It is why people must take these critical steps to reduce and stop these crimes, resolve the issues that have been planted as a result of this idea, and help change the mindset to a more positive and no threshold towards hate crimes. Criminal justice officials and state policymakers need to realize that it is key to make or adjust hate crime legislation because groups of hate crimes have had a tremendous impact on social behavior for a long period, hate crimes impact the entire society causing public damage, and the overall threat of hate crimes acts on the society without the repeated use of punishments. To stop hate crimes from happening, all of America needs to work together.

While hate crime action has a long history, it has only been in the last several decades that research took to understand this type of crime has been carried. The purpose of this research paper is to discuss the history of hate crimes, the analyst reports of hate crimes, the Judicial System and Rights, and the understanding of the motive of hate crimes and solutions to hate crimes.

To have a better understanding of hate crime, we have to discuss the history of hate crime. During the 1960s in the American South, civil rights workers, and social activists faced violence and threats from members of the Ku Klux Klan and other organizations perpetrated to separation. Local prosecutors and police were often unwilling to prosecute these crimes. For Example, According to Malone, Clare. “Daily Meme: A Brief History of the Hate Crime.” The American Prospect, 14 Apr. 2014. “in 1964 in Mississippi, members of the Ku Klux Klan killed civil rights workers James Earl Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner. After local officials refused to prosecute the case, some of the assailants were tried in federal” this shows hate crime was identified before it was in common.

The term ‘hate crime’ came into common usage in the United States during 1985 when it was issued by United States Representatives John Conyers and Mario Biaggi. Although the term hate crime and societal benefit in it are nearly recent developments, hate crime has deep historical meaning. Throughout US history, a significant balance of all murders, assaults, and acts of vandalism and profanation has been fired by hatred. As Native Americans have been described as the first hate crime victims, hate crimes have existed since the United States’ initiation. Since then, members of all immigrant groups have been subjected to discrimination, harassment, and violence.

Starting from the Roman Empire the Romes killing of Christians transited to Hitler ( Nazi) butchery of Jews, hate crimes were acted by people and governments long before the term was commonly applied. A major part of determining a crime as a hate crime is that it is focused on a historically oppressed group. As Europeans began to conquer the world from the 16th century onwards, domestic people in the colonized areas, such as Native Americans increasingly became the targets of bias-motivated intimidation and violence. For example, According to Malone, Clare. “Daily Meme: A Brief History of the Hate Crime.” The American Prospect, 14 Apr. 2014. “During the past two centuries, common cases of hate crimes in the US include African Americans, mostly in the South, and Mexicans and Chinese in the West”. This shows that hate crime wasn’t only in the united states and it shows how that term transited from Europe to the United States.

If an interview was conducted with individuals across the United States whether they have been a victim of a hate crime because of their gender or gender status, thousands have stories to tell. An analysis from Denver, Brian. Hate Crime in New York State 2016 Annual Report. Criminal Justice Research Report, Office of Justice Research & Performance. “Determined that between 2015 and 2019 more than 10,000 hate crimes targeting victims gender took place on average each year, which almost 13 percent of all hate crimes reported by victims in New York.” this shows that hate crime is a serious issue in New York especially and it’s rising over the years.

Particularly about half of hate crime victims report the conflict to police, According to Denver, Brian. “Hate Crime in New York State 2016 Annual Report.” Criminal Justice Research Report, Office of Justice Research & Performance. It stated “topmost reasons for not informing the police are reached to another executive, not significant to police and private concern.” this clarifies that even when people choose to report hate crimes, what they believe to be an act of hate may not meet the legal standard and people might be terrified to speak to police because of the feeling of guilt or shame. Hate crime victims may prefer to express to their supervisors or school administrators, rather they may prefer not to report it at all because they don’t want to be dismissed by the police, That’s more possible to occur in societies that historically do not believe the law and policy, which refer to the transgender community and racial communities.

Police are likely to ask the victim about bias motivation when there is no other obvious motivation, An example would be if a person was knocked, but the intruder did not take their belongings. According to Chapman Ben, and Katie Honan. “New York City Sees Surge in Hate Crimes.” The Wall Street Journal, Dow Jones & Company, 8 Oct. 2019 emphasizes that “When it comes to rape victims, police don’t ordinarily ask them if they are targeted because of their gender.” this proves that its different types of hate crime, not just gender and different motives behind each crime. Some police departments may not report gender bias crimes because various state laws do not defend gender or gender identity in the same way that they protect race, religion, or sexual orientation.

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There has been a collective effort to set analytical reports of hate crimes at the national level, the possibility still exists about whether the hate crime rate is rising or falling. Nationwide the amount of hate crime conflicts looks to have increased dramatically in 1994, sustained and handled during the following 2 years, then increased again in 1996. According to the FBI reports, five States still did not collect hate crime data. even if all States were reporting these conflicts it would be hard to estimate the level of the hate crime problem in this country because bias-motivated crimes typically are underreported by both police and victims.

It is important to transform the justice system and its procedures for administering these attacks to stop the non-punishment of these hate crimes. This is anticipated to the many problems that result from the system and prosecutions of hate crimes, including the obligation of the laws that connect to them. According to Glickhouse, Rachel. “5 Things You Need to Know About Hate Crimes in America.” ProPublica, 7 Aug. 2019 “despite the attempt made to discuss hate crimes within department policies, there is no thorough a version of the requirement for actual implementation”. This proves that hate crime isn’t taken seriously throughout the judicial system, and prosecutors tend to ignore certain cases of hate crime, this makes hate crime victims more ups

Avoidance within the system generates problems for continuing criminal crimes, therefore, resulting in unpunished hate crimes. The problems inside the judicial system generate problems within the system and prosecution of hate crimes and join on to the problem. According to Glickhouse, Rachel. “5 Things You Need to Know About Hate Crimes in America.” ProPublica, 7 Aug. 2019 “legal actions inside the justice system aren’t sufficient for victims, therefore, they attend to outside the law for justice. Numbers of these problems lead to hostility, unreported hate crimes, and revenge crimes because of the absence of development towards resolving this problem”. This shows that victims of hate crimes are afraid to express themselves because the justice system isn’t sufficient for them which leads these victims traumatized and tend for revenge.

Boundaries of social justice are the most significant because unlike a few people, but an entire society becomes perpetrators on a large system. It converts extra difficulty for there to be the right solutions due to the careless support of the jury racism in society. According to Devine, Catherine. “Millions Are Victims of Hate Crimes, Though Many Never Report Them.” Center for Public Integrity. “current racism is adapted to be arranged by victim criticism leading to support of more powerful expressions of hatred toward a whole minority group due to the shortage of punishment for the criminal act”. And as a consequence, this shows the problems within the justice system do have a significant impact on the victims and everyone else. The next dilemma is an unequal system that doesn’t correctly direct and prosecutes these crimes. prosecutors stated the idea of what a real hate crime is based on the properties of the negative motive of the victim, no contact preceding between the offender and victim, and through critical voice at a particular individual.

Creation of human lead that almost every activity is performed for a reason. On almost every occasion there is something that makes an individual demonstration. A large group of components may make an atmosphere wherein individuals, roused by their predispositions, make criminal moves. Such factors incorporate poor or unsure financial conditions, racial generalizations on TV, hate-filled talk on syndicated programs or political promotions, the utilization of racial code language, and a person’s close-to-home encounters with individuals from specific minority gatherings. When an atmosphere of detest is made, a solitary occurrence can trigger a flood of despise of wrongdoings.

Outer Influences Hate crime acts are touchy outside occasions. A few instances of outside impacts, In the 1980s, when Japan was cutting into American offers of autos and electronic gear, there was an expansion in assaults on Japanese. During the Gulf War, there was an expansion in assaults on Arab-Americans. According to DeAngelis, TORI. “Understanding and Preventing Hate Crimes.” Monitor on Psychology, American Psychological Association, ‘There is a feeling of the counter. One thing occurs and individuals need to settle the score. There is an adolescent posse attitude. Where it resembled they got one of our own we’ll get one of theirs.’ this shows that humans tend to want revenge in any situation that happened against their beliefs and this motive is dangerous because its more aggression behind it. After the bombarding that occurred in California, there was an underlying overflowing of hostile to Arab-American assessment that took steps to heighten however was subdued when it became realized that the central suspects in the shelling were Caucasians conceived in the United States. Which shows that prejudgment plays a big role in people’s mind where if an incident happened they already know who did it. This is not the case in that example.

Some hate crimes researchers have noticed that hate crime violations will in general ascent during times of monetary vulnerability. Truth be told, a couple of states that a general relationship exists between the open’s view of the condition of the economy and the degree of despising violations. According to DeAngelis, TORI. “Understanding and Preventing Hate Crimes.” Monitor on Psychology, American Psychological Association, “The perception of how things are is almost more important than the reality”. This shows that the more an individual takes things by what they are whether bad or good it’s more important than real life. Albeit some vibe that the association between hate violations and the condition of the economy is overemphasized, despise wrongdoings do appear to increment during times of monetary vulnerability. During these periods, minorities end up viewed as the reason for the negative conditions that others are encountering.

Trigger Incidents Once an atmosphere for hate wrongdoings exists, all that is required is a shocking, prominent racial occurrence, called a ‘trigger incident,’ to set off a cycle of retaliatory occurrences or even considerate issues. A trigger incident that happened a while back in 2012 where it had been videotaped beating of a black 17-year-old African-American teenager named Trayvon Martin in February 2012, Trayvon was beating and gunned down because of an officer who killed him because he looks suspicious in Florida, police officer accused in the assault. News of the acquittal sparked huge rioting, looting, vandalism, and furnace setting in South Florida. The following month, the stage of hate crimes commenced extending in many jurisdictions across the Nation. Similarly, the perfect stage of bias-motivated incidents in New York City passed off at some stage in the month immediately following the assault on a group of black guys in Brooklyn, New York.

The most significant thing that grown-ups can do to decrease the spread of hate crime-inspired conduct is to assist youthful with peopling figure out how to regard and commend decent variety. Research shows that youngsters between the ages of 5 and 8 start to put esteem decisions on similarities and contrasts among individuals. Also, children’s racial dispositions start to solidify by the fourth grade, making the direction of grown-ups during this timespan especially significant. Grown-ups talk straightforwardly and sincerely with kids about decent variety, bigotry, and partiality. In schools, instructors tend to participate in instructive endeavors to dissipate fantasies and generalizations about specific gatherings of individuals and at whatever point conceivable work with guardians and neighborhood law implementation specialists so such exertion is bolstered on numerous fronts.

All hate crime laws must work to ensure both essentially and typically the foremost imperiled bunches in society. We suggest probably that lawmakers should begin from the position that all strands of hate wrongdoing be treated similarly beneath hate wrongdoing statutes given that each strand has as of now been proven as being a significant social issue that’s deserving of specific legitimate assurance and as it were where there’s a compelling and genuine reason for unexpectedly treating characteristics should this be the case in law. Where laws are unable to be implemented in the home, the system should look for to either remove the organizations totally for all ensured characteristics or make revisions to the wording of the arrangements to guarantee that the law works decently and reliably over strands.

Practices must be encouraged by experienced and completely prepared helpful specialists who get the touchy flow of abhorring wrongdoing exploitation. Facilitators must give satisfactory planning to each member. Facilitators must guarantee that cooperation is intentional which partners are not tempted into partaking. Level One helpful experiences should not be utilized for hate wrongdoing unless satisfactory arrangement and intentional support can be ensured. And Facilitators should undertake to work in conjunction with other offices and associations when sorting out remedial gatherings (counting schools, home affiliations, neighborhood policing groups, community security units, anti-social conduct units, and social administrations). suggest that a national online hate wrongdoing center be made in arrange to make strides official detailing and recording of online occurrences. The center should be utilized as a stage from which detailed episodes can be surveyed by professional officers who are trained to respond specifically to online hate crime offenses. This will guarantee that a more all-encompassing approach is taken to tending to the requirements of both victims and perpetrators of hate crimes.

This exploration likewise has suggestions for current social arrangements. Notwithstanding the individual-level advantages that portray current master fairness contentions in the gay and lesbian rights banter, there are certain social externalities, for example, a decrease in hate crime violations, related to genius uniformity laws. Albeit popular sentiment on marriage balance remains reasonably firmly separated, the overall population is, generally, not isolated in its resistance to despise wrongdoings. In this way, the potential for state strategies to impact, if not fill in as, cultural powers in the creation of hate crime violations will be a significant thought for governing bodies and courts pondering marriage correspondence, hate crime, and work non-discrimination laws.

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Levels Of Aggregation Of Hate Crime. (2021, September 01). Edubirdie. Retrieved May 19, 2022, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/levels-of-aggregation-of-hate-crime/
“Levels Of Aggregation Of Hate Crime.” Edubirdie, 01 Sept. 2021, edubirdie.com/examples/levels-of-aggregation-of-hate-crime/
Levels Of Aggregation Of Hate Crime. [online]. Available at: <https://edubirdie.com/examples/levels-of-aggregation-of-hate-crime/> [Accessed 19 May 2022].
Levels Of Aggregation Of Hate Crime [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2021 Sept 01 [cited 2022 May 19]. Available from: https://edubirdie.com/examples/levels-of-aggregation-of-hate-crime/
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