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Online Hate Crime And Discrimination Of Vulnerable LGBTG+ Minorities On The Online Dating Application Grindr In The Britain

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Rationale and Research Question

The increasing number of studies and news have risen the problem of hate crime and discrimination of vulnerable targeted individuals in the LGBTQ+ community that now days are occurring more often in the virtual space. Anti-LGBTQ+ abuse online is now endemic.

A survey carried by Chaka L. Bachmann & Becca Gooch (2017), asking 5,000 lesbian, gay, bi, trans and queer people all across England, Wales and Scotland about their LGBTQ+ life in Britain. The report investigates their experiences of homophobic, bi-phobic and transphobic hate crimes and day-to-day discrimination. The results stated that one in ten LGBTQ+ people have experienced online abuse directed at them personally in the last month. This increases to one in four trans people who have experienced transphobic abuse or behaviour online, compared with 7%of people who aren’t trans and who have experienced online abuse in the same period of time. One in five black, asian and minority ethnic people have experienced abuse online compared to one in ten white people. Non-binary people are more likely to experience personal online abuse.

As the Internet helped the gay culture expending and providing a launch platform for the advancement of gay civil rights, it also has the downside of giving access to unfiltered hate and discrimination towards targeted individuals. The same technological advancement permitted certain offenders to hide behind aliases, blank profiles and fake accounts and create cautionary clauses such as ‘no fats, no fems, no asian, no black, etc.’ (David Gudelunas 2012).

A study that I would conduct on gay people using a gay dating site showed that the straight-acting tribe emerged because some gay people wanted to achieve hegemonic masculinity to overcome the effeminate labels. Also, effeminate men are unattractive to most of the straight-acting men, because they violate normative gender-performative expression valued and learned by the “straight-acting/cisgender” men. This attitude is called, “sissy-phobia” stated Shinsuke Eguchi (2009). This study could give us a key clue as why some individuals are targeting or marginalize the minorities that sometimes end up as hate crime and discrimination victims.

The qualitative research proposal is based on the following research questions: how is online hate crime and discrimination expressed towards LGBTQ+ minorities on the gay dating application Grindr, constructed by the ‘straight-acting’ attitude of the offenders towards their victims? , and how can hate crime and discrimination be identify in the language used by the straight-acting offenders?

Because Grindr is classified as an online dating application (David Gudelunas, 2012), and is often used as a hook-up app for gay people, it is the most popular platform for offenders to find their victims now days, we will use this application as the place of work and it’s users as the participants niche.

The qualitative approach is useful for this topic because it offers us the possibility to interpret the subjective experiences and individual encounters of each participant on the gay dating app (Grinder), where they’ve been victims of harassment or hate and discrimination. Their experiences are unique and are not replicable which enriches the data collection, otherwise, if it would be quantitative it would be too plain and broad to comprehend all the perks and details that are making them so valuable for this research.

Methods (Qualitative Approach)

The qualitative approaches methods would be the critical/discursive because we want to interrogate the way language constructs the victim’s reality, using the deconstruction technique we then take the text apart to find the meaning in the collected data (. Exploitation, prejudice and ideology examining how the hate crimes and discriminations are expressed, justified or rendered invisible. The aim is to collect data and analyse the discursive constructions around the words from the texts they’ve received through the application. Therefore, the discourse theory aims the conceptualization of ‘discourse’ as a social phenomenon and it tries to justify its genesis and its structure.

The discursive strategy chosen is the Predication which serves as a tool to identify devices/meanings in our text that are expressed as hate crime or discrimination towards the receiver, such as: (stereotypical) evaluative attributions of negative or positive traits in the form of adjectives, relative clauses, conjunctional clauses, prepositional phrases, infinitive clauses, etc; collocations; comparisons, metaphors, hyperboles, similes etc; allusions, evocations, presuppositions, implicatures; explicit predicates, or predictive nouns/adjectives/pronouns.

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The participants recruited for this project would be members of the LGBTQ+ community regardless of their gender, ethnicity, orientation or pronouns, it is important to be at the legal age of eighteen or above and that they are actively using or have used the dating application Grindr in Britain and are victims of harassment or hate crime and discrimination. It is preferable of them to have been actively at least a couple of months on the dating application and had significant text conversations, because it would help with the discourse analysis that I will use.

Data collection

The most suitable method of collecting the data for such a sensitive topic of a vulnerable group would be participant-generated textual data collection because it can be a quick and accessible way to approach participants that are hard to engage, our aim is to make them feel comfortable and safe. It is a sensitive topic thus face-to-face interviews don’t give them the same amount of security and anonymity, and also it would be time consuming and expensive for both sides.

We will ask the victims to help us identify through language analysis text from past offenders with the hope that in the future we will have enough data in this matter to help prevent and protect future generations of individuals. The participants can access a link on the adds, forums, social media platforms etc, that redirects them to an online survey where they write their experiences on Grindr (to make sure they cannot five any names, no personal information, no location, etc).

Collecting data online is an optimal way to generate data from a large sample group from all across Britain and people can participate in their own space and time without being pressured like in focus groups or interviews.


For recruiting the participants, I would approach them via promoting adds on the application (Grindr), forums and other social platforms. The participants will be firmly informed via email once they accessed the promoted link, then once they accept the consent form and read the information sheet (Appendix.2), the participants will have to fill in information about their age, gender and sexual orientation, afterwards they have to fill in a text box where they can write down their story related to the question given (Appendix.1).

Data analysis

Since the data is text collected the first thing is to read it and plan steps to prepare the corpus, we are looking according to Ruth W. & Michael M. et all. (2016), to downsize it to specific criteria relevant to our topic such as frequency, typicality, representativity, intertextual, salience, uniqueness and redundancy.


I’m well aware that my position as a researcher is to be objective and professional and not get emotionally involved, equally to any of the research topics I’m exploring

Ethical considerations

Taking in mind that the research participants are part of a vulnerable group after they give their consent, I will keep their anonymity and store the collected data on a safe guarded device and delete them after the data analysis is complete. Since this research is not founded and we cannot afford a health supervisor, we give the participants the opportunity to retreat from the research at any given moment if they manifest emotional distress or unsafety.

As one ethical expectation, oppression of lesbians and gay men (e.g. negative attitudes, stereotyping, hate crimes, social isolation and rejection) has damaging effects, resulting in high levels of unmet need and vulnerability. Working with vulnerable groups there is a potential for the recall of painful and emotional experiences to be damaging for the participant if there is no recourse to support or supervision, For example, when participants have shared information of physical and/or sexual abuse perpetrated by health care professionals but have been unable to do anything about it because of their vulnerability (T James and H Platzer).


  1. Gudelunas, D., (2017). Gay men and the internet. Sex in the Digital Age, 11.
  2. Gudelunas, D., (2012). There’s an App for that: The Uses and Gratifications of Online Social Networks for Gay Men. Sexuality & Culture.
  3. Chaka L., Bachmann (Stonewall) & Gooch B., (YouGov). (2017). LGBT in Britain – Hate crime and discrimination.
  4. Shinsuke E., (2009). Negotiating Hegemonic Masculinity: The Rhetorical Strategy of “Straight-Acting” among Gay Men, Journal of Intercultural Communication Research.
  5. James, T., & Platzer, H. (1999). Ethical Considerations in Qualitative Research with Vulnerable Groups: Exploring Lesbians’ and Gay Men’s Experiences of Health Care – A Personal Perspective. Nursing Ethics, 6(1), 73–81.
  6. R., Wodak, M., Meyer, et all. (2016). Methods of Critical Discourse Studies 1-49.

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Online Hate Crime And Discrimination Of Vulnerable LGBTG+ Minorities On The Online Dating Application Grindr In The Britain. (2022, Jun 16). Edubirdie. Retrieved September 24, 2023, from
“Online Hate Crime And Discrimination Of Vulnerable LGBTG+ Minorities On The Online Dating Application Grindr In The Britain.” Edubirdie, 16 Jun. 2022,
Online Hate Crime And Discrimination Of Vulnerable LGBTG+ Minorities On The Online Dating Application Grindr In The Britain. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 24 Sept. 2023].
Online Hate Crime And Discrimination Of Vulnerable LGBTG+ Minorities On The Online Dating Application Grindr In The Britain [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Jun 16 [cited 2023 Sept 24]. Available from:
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