To improve the effectiveness of one’s organization, organizational behavior which studies groups, individuals, and other similar aspects’ involvement on behavior in an organization is used. Another purpose for organization behavior is the building of relationships through capturing goals related to the objective. As it is concerned with employment related issues, so it emphasizes behavior such as absenteeism, turnover, human performance, productivity and management. As it is shown at the figure below, these are the examples of goals to organizational behavior.
Employee productivity (sometimes referred to as workforce productivity) is an assessment of the efficiency of a worker or group of workers. Productivity may be evaluated in terms of the output of an employee in a specific period of time. “Typically, the productivity of a given worker will be assessed relative to an average for employees doing similar work; Because much of the success of any organization relies upon the productivity of its workforce, employee productivity is an important consideration for businesses” (Hameed 1). Employees must make themselves more valuable than costly to the company in order to be hired. This way the employee becomes an investment and in theory the employee eventually increase the return for the company, but only if the employee isn’t counter productive. When employees are productive, the company greatly benefits from it. For one thing, lazy employees who are not disciplined and are otherwise treated the same as hard working employees demotivates the true hard working employees. To the same affect a highly productive employee, who is rewarded for their great work can motivate other employees, boosting the over all morale and making a better atmosphere for the company. Failing to reward the staff can demotivate the whole team. If a company shares some of its success with employees in the form of pay raises, bonuses or better benefits, employees will be more motivated and increase productivity. Additionally, this increased revenue can result in the company growing. Productive employees can also benefit customers because highly productive employees provide speedier and higher-quality customer service than those who are unproductive. If employees are rewarded for their productivity and are highly motivated, this can result in even better customer service and interactions. Naturally, great customer service can result in customer loyalty and word-of-mouth advertising, which can in turn bring further revenue for the business.
Absenteeism, a term used to refer to absences that are avoidable, habitual and unscheduled, is a source of irritation to employers and co-workers. Such absences are disruptive to proper work scheduling and output, and costly to an organization and the economy as a whole. Without any valid reason taking off from job is absenteeism. Absenteeism means either habitual evasion of work, or willful absence as in a strike action. It does not include involuntary or occasional absence due to valid causes, or reasons beyond one’s control, such as accidents or sickness. To fill gap of absent employee manager has to offer overtime to other employee or to get temporary help from part timer worker to complete work of that particular employee. It creates cost and efficient work related problems as well as it burdensome other employees those who are regular and show their willingness to work on time, regularly and efficiently. It unlimitedly degrades customer satisfaction and makes bad impact on country economy. Experience shows that better attendance is synonymous with better quality, lower costs, and greater productivity. Some people tend to miss work at the last minute for health reasons as well. “For example, absenteeism can be grouped into three main broad categories and number one is sickness and illness absence, number two is excused and number three is unexcused and unscheduled absence”( Essay1). There are many different strategies that will make up for absenteeism depending on the organization. Some may go by a point system or maybe find a way to reduce the size of being absent by giving out more sick hours or vacation time in order for the organization to gain production between their employees and not hire seasonal people to come in and do their jobs. There are always positive and negative moments of absenteeism and as shown below are the consequences of absenteeism including positive moments of absenteeism.
Traditional research on turnover in the public management field treats turnover as a dependent variable, emphasizing its negative role on organizational performance without sufficient theoretical or empirical support. With an emphasis on the type of employee turnover as a situational factor, this research establishes the hypothesized relationships between different employee turnovers—employee transfers, quits, and involuntary turnover—and organizational performance, and tests them using panel data from 2010 to 2014 in agencies of the U.S. federal government. “Chan et al. (2010) also state employee turnover as a serious issue, particularly in the area of human resource management. To fulfill the basic needs and provide a good working environment, good pay and other benefits in an economic approach is quite multifaceted and burdensome to an organization”(Organ 1). Empirical results challenge the accepted belief about the harmful effects of turnover on organizational performance. Turnover can be beneficial for an organization. The results confirm the relationship differs across the type of turnover involved. Employee transfers have an inverted U-shaped relationship with organizational performance, and involuntary turnovers have a linear and positive relationship with organizational performance. Given the use of a perceptual measure of organizational performance by remaining employees, these results imply that a low-to-moderate level of employee transfers is likely to increase organizational performance and that involuntary turnovers—an elimination of employees who presented poor performance or were involved in misconducts—contribute to improving organizational performance.
Organizational citizenship behavior deals with the actions and behaviors that are not required by workers. They are not critical to the job, but benefit the team and encourage even greater organizational functioning and efficiency. This is typically categorized as a worker “going above and beyond,” or “giving their all.” They look at their job as more than just a paycheck and strive to do all they can to make their work atmosphere run smoothly; even if it has a minimal connection to their current duties. Usually, these behaviors are seen as positive by company overseers and the over all important impact of these behaviors should be noted. In Most businesses there are many upsides to organizational citizenship. Examples are since of purpose, feeling in control and a renewed sense of vigor. Employees are more motivated to work when they know their work is playing a huge roll for the company. The second upside is feeling in control where organizational citizenship Behavior allows employees to feel they have greater control over the work they do, and how they do it. Workers get the opportunity to decide what they want to put more time into and how they want to accomplish it. The third is renewed sense of vigor where employees feel they are doing good for others or think that they are engaging in work that means something, it prevents feelings of burnout. Employees can become re-energized and have a new sense of purpose, so they can continue to do work that furthers company goals. “For decades, the accepted view in organizational psychology was that job satisfaction and job performance were unrelated. However, recent years have found increasing evidence that satisfaction, while not strongly related to task productivity by individuals, is more closely related to a different kind of contribution, which is referred to as organizational citizenship behavior aka “OCB” ( Organ 2 )”.
Job satisfaction is traditionally defined as a pleasurable or positive emotional state that results from one’s appraisal of one’s job or job aspects. This definition includes both one’s affective reactions to one’s job (feelings) and one’s cognitive evaluation of the job (thoughts). There is controversy about whether job satisfaction should be considered as the interplay of both one’s thoughts and feelings, as implied in this definition, or whether the cognitive and affective aspects should be separated into distinct dimensions. Those advocating the latter approach cite studies showing that cognitively oriented measures of job satisfaction predict different behaviors to affect-based measures of job satisfaction. Although the definition of job satisfaction is in some dispute, both sides agree on the need to align the measurement of job satisfaction with the definition. Defining job satisfaction as, say, an affective response but assessing it as an evaluation leads to confusion. A further issue to consider when measuring job satisfaction is its focus. One can assess how satisfied one is with one’s job as a whole, or one’s global feeling about the job. A typical question would be: “Overall, how much enjoyment do you find in your work?” An alternative to this global approach is to assess and sum up satisfaction with facets of the job, such as satisfaction with one’s pay, one’s colleagues, the nature of the work, and the supervision. “In the figure below it shows the results of the empirical study conducted in industrial systems suggest that this part of the model needs to be improved to reflect the mediating role of job involvement in the process through which job satisfaction influences organizational commitment”(Redmond 1).
Research shows that overall global satisfaction is something different from a combination of facet satisfactions. Moreover, satisfactions with different facets are often not highly related. For example, one can be very satisfied with colleagues but highly dissatisfied with promotion prospects. If one is trying to understand the overall effect of jobs, then global ratings are usually the best choice. However, a facet approach is more diagnostic if the assessor wants to know how to improve satisfaction in a particular situation.
Workplace conflict of one sort or another is inevitable and universal. Some people may clash with coworkers; others may become upset by the behavior of their supervisors or subordinates. There are also occasions when people will disagree with organizational policies, strategies, or governance. Whatever the basis for their frustrations, in most instances’ individuals react in conventional, socially acceptable ways. Misbehavior and Dysfunctional Attitudes in Organizations focuses on the more problematic and destructive responses to conflict and dissatisfaction in the workplace. These unconventional and illegitimate reactions, including violence and other deviant behaviors that inflict physical or psychological harm, can cause long-term and even irreparable damage to organizations and their employees. “There are many essays in Misbehavior and Dysfunctional Attitudes in Organizations carefully examining the scope, predictors, repercussions, and organizational responses to violence, aggression, and other forms of undesirable activities and attitudes at the personal, interpersonal, group, and institutional levels in the workplace”(Essays 2). Some of the contributions are descriptive in nature and build impressively on the existing literature to arrive at intuitively appealing insights. Others are empirical in design and base their findings on field surveys. Collectively, the selections constitute a meaningful contribution by refining the present literature on this important management issue.