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Organization of Local, International and Transnational Organized Crime Policing and Research Issue

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Introduction

This review is try to assess the Organization of Local, international and transnational organized crime policing and research issue. Policing is always necessary in all societies for the protection of order, safety and social relations. Approaches to policing vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, organization to organization (Interpol, UNPOL, and AUPOL (AfriPol) and country to country (Reiner, 2002).

Police officers share a distinctive attitude in the world. There is no single culture, norms, values, structures, and ethical standard in any one police organisation, but Police share a set of assumptions, values, modes of thinking, and acting ( Chan 2007).

International police cooperation plays a key role in addressing the threat posed by transnational crime ranging from international terrorism, illicit drugs, organized crimes, illicit trafficking of humans and goods to the misuse of technologies in cyber space. As criminal organizations become more sophisticated and widespread, run by new technology, globalization and geopolitics, they will not pause to take advantage of global gaps in policing. Police forces must therefore cooperate in areas beyond intelligence exchange and solving crime. They must also understand the socio-political conditions of countries where transnational crime stems from, and support the source countries’ efforts to eliminate crime. (Intrpo, 2008)

The purpose of this paper to review the articles of; The Organization of Organized Crime Policing and Its International Context, Local Policing and Transnational Organized Crime, The Possibility Of Transnational Policing, Policing and Society and transnational Policing: the Globalization Thesis, a Typology and a Research Agenda respectively. The review is to see critically how these articles emphasized on the their title and to identify its objectives, framework, perspective, methods and their findings and their possible solutions for the raised issues on transnational organized crime policing with the world trend.

This review is organized in reviewing part of each article which summarizes and criticizes concepts, describing the methodologies used, their perspectives and the gaps they missed and conclusion and recommendation.

The description of reviewing articles

The first article is discussed on the organization of transnational organized crime policing (CLIVE HARFIELD, 2008). Objectives of this article are to explain upon a decade of developments in the organization of organized crime policing and show that the policing of organized crime are based on certain prerequisites.

As the author stated that Policing is organized depends on an understanding of what needs to be policed. The awareness of the threat of organized crime is changed, hence, organized crime has a various characteristics in relations to nation-wide conspiracy; ethnic grouping; socio-political elites and state-organized crime; professional or white-collar crime; ongoing illicit business enterprises; a global phenomenon; a core threat to democracy; and, increasingly, as having a terrorist connection. These characteristics reinforce the notion that organized crime has grown beyond the competence of the traditional criminal justice investigative agencies (Levi, 2007).

Perspectives of the author is the offences created under national criminal and customs law is lead to the cooperation and collaboration for multilateral agreement together with bilateral treaties is for mutual legal assistance to extradition, investigation and prosecution of transnational criminals. As addressed in the literature, investigating and prosecuting transnational criminality is grounded upon governments’ and national authorities’ political willingness to employ resources in collaboration or in assuming responsibility for a trial that could theoretically take place in more than one jurisdiction if the behavior transgressed more than one national criminal code. Since organized crime is a global problem, any possible or ambitious global solution suffers for the political reality of different national priorities, perspectives and powers.

Based on this author explained that, the collaborative and co-ordinated effort is required to transform different and divergent national capacities and capabilities into an effective multilateral mechanism against organized crime and hence appropriately organize organized crime policing in its international context (Edwards and Gill, 2003). The article also emphasized on the development of organized crime policing over the past decade and viewed in the widest sense.

The author also differentiated the strengths and weaknesses of organized crime policing. Policing of organized crime are characterized by flexibility and innovation, with opportunities to achieve successful prosecutions and reduce harm within a transnational context, but suffers for differences in capacity and capability between jurisdictions; different and indifferent attitudes towards treaty negotiation, ratification and implementation; different attitudes and agenda in relation to mutual legal assistance and international law enforcement co-operation.

The author argued, if there is consensus between jurisdictions about the resource prerequisites, collaboration can take place on the basis of equal enough peers. But if not, creates vulnerabilities and network gaps in terms of illicit supply and demand, creating chances for organized crime groups to exploit the absence of effective policing or, where authorities are weak, to buy the absence of effective policing through corruption. Where this is not possible or is rejected, the foreign jurisdiction itself becomes part of ‘the problem’ to be policed.

As the author of this article pointed out, the organization of policing organized crime needs some requirements such as domestic statute law, courts with relevant competency, instruments of inter-national co-operation, agencies with appropriate powers and capabilities, preventative capability, upstream interdiction; the capacity to generate, manage, share and apply knowledge; all within an appropriate framework of good governance and legitimacy for policing of organized crimes or transnational criminals.

The second article of this review is focused on local policing and transnational organized crime (Stan Gilmour & Robert France, 2011). The objectives of the article is, to discusses the problems associated with a crime management model instituted geographically, and the advantages of different models of policing to counter transnational organized crime. It analyzes the different policing approaches from three organizing frameworks; intelligence led policing, problem-solving policing, and goal-oriented policing.

The concepts of this article is focused on the movement of policing during the late 1980s, within British policing to establish a new system to inform the effective deployment of policing resources that has advanced into the police service refers to as ‘Intelligence-Led Policing’ (ILP). As the authors explained that, this approach was consistent through the implementation of the National Intelligence Model (NIM). Policing groups tasked with attempting crime at an inter-force, national and international level had always made use of intelligence information. As a result of this, Kent police mechanism emerged which is referred to as the Crime Management Model.

The NIM process sets out a system for the collection and evaluation of information, taking a much broader view of the information that should be considered than simply intelligence material. That information, having been developed and analyzed, is made available to two key meetings: The Strategic Tasking and Co-ordination Group, which sets the strategic direction and priorities for policing on a long term basis, and the Tactical Tasking and Co-ordination group, which operates on a much more short term basis.

They also specified that, the NIM aim is to provide a holistic business process that can be applied to the policing of crime from neighborhood issues through to national and international criminality. From an intelligence base and with a problem-solving perspective local officers should be encouraged to coordinate a much enough response to the harms of transnational organized crime (TOC) within their communities.

They concluded with a suggestion to expression towards an Intelligent Problem Solving solution that prioritizes the grassroots by focusing on threat, harm, and risk within a crime range.

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The third Article is the possibility of transnational policing (Alice Hills (2009). The objectives of this article are to assess the possibility of developing transnational policing in the light of UN peacekeeping operations. The article deals with an explanation of transnational policing’s limitations based on the priority of sub-state practice over international standards with the experience of Nigerian officers offers a relevant case instance.

The concept of the article is give emphasis on as Police officers share a distinctive viewpoint on the world. A consensus has emerged that, there is no single culture in any one police organization, but Police share a set of assumptions, values, modes of thinking, and acting (Chan 2007). As the author describing that, awareness of occupational linkage are currently reinforced by the broadly shared opinion that police forces must co-operate to respond effectively to the crime and insecurity. Various forms of bilateral, multilateral and international cooperation are encouraged by intergovernmental organizations (IGOs).The operational requirements of multinational peacekeeping deployments play role as the conformation of UN police (UNPOL) missions emphasizes. A UNPOL operation for confirmation of a common ethic is given on the basis of the UN’s codes, declarations and standards on policing. The possibility of developing a genuinely transnational police craft is accordingly slight due to political, to do with power, and sub-state policing realities usually balance the idealism and universalizing trends of plentiful analysts and organizations.

As detailed in the literature, there is no transnational agreement on the levels of force required for effective policing, because its restriction is based on the priority of sub-state practice. Transnational policing is progressively widespread in response to the promotion of international human rights legislation, humanitarian intervention strategies and cross-border security operations. The security strategies of specific agents play a great role to achieve its political objectives, its procedural standards and ideological ideals on a system of cross-border police co-operation. So transnational policing is presented liberal values which are universalized. The institutional fragmentation prevents the global common interest into practical action, and admits that the transnational condition is not conducive to fostering an ethic of good policing.

The author argued that the approaches focus on the interests and experiences of international actors, rather than on the performance, effectiveness and conduct of, and popular support for, indigenous police organizations. Temporarily, the law-enforcement perspective stresses the need to strengthen local capacities to manage local and regional crime.

The author also argues that, it is difficult to recognize a transnational ethic capable of incorporating in a range of practices and norms. Every problem is associated with the rationale, recruitment, deployment and management of multinational police in a UN context. UNPOL encourages a public good on behalf of the international community. Its strategic mission is to develop institutional police capacity in post-conflict environments, and support the reform, restructuring and rebuilding of local police. But some UNPOL have less professional experience and competence than the police they are advising. And also the transnational standards are undermined by the behavior of many of its officers.

The fourth article is Transnational Policing: The Globalization Thesis, a Typology and a Research Agenda (Ben Bowling, 2009)

This article explores the thesis features of policing are gradually transforming as the world is becoming more economically, politically, technologically and socially interconnected. Exploring the dimensions of transnational policing based on a socio-spatial typology.

The author used descriptive, explanatory and normative research methods to describe the dimensions of transnational policing practices and plan out programs.

The concept of the article is addressing that the globalization thesis agenda on transnational policing is developing in a variety of different socio-geographical scopes which is described in relation to policing in the local, national, regional, international and global scopes. As a fact, contemporary policing requires collaboration across international boundaries has become accepted. Transnational networks have become wider, intensive and closer flowing global forces are having a greater local impact. Globalization researchers have noted the rise of an integrated world economy, advancing in transport and telecommunications technologies and numerous other dimensions of global interconnectedness. These have led to the globalization of insecurity in its broadest sense provoking many other changes relevant to understanding contemporary policing.

As pointed in the literature, driven by technological innovation, political change and economic policy choices, product, capital and labor markets are integrating and world trade is increasing. The capacity to communicate around the world has profoundly increased through personal computers and mobile telephony. Global interconnectedness creates new chances for illegality and enables criminal collaborations and also constructs horizontal communication and collaboration among police officers. Interpol was intended to be a communication network designed to promote mutual assistance between police organizations. As mentioned in the literature, Interpol offers four core functions; it provides a secure global communication system to share information, it provides databases that can be accessed through the global communication system, offers operational support through a command and coordination center, and training national police forces.

The author concluded that, by raising some practical, political and ethical issues on transnational policing. Transnational policing in its various forms will continue to expand in coming decades. The impact emerging from network or the technology and innovation development and this effect change the communication system with other country. The enormous challenges presented by the shifting nature of policing.

The Overall critiques of the articles reviewed

Most part of the articles was well written and well organized in review of literature to develop the situation and the authors cited in review of literature several references, but there are complicated due to the complex comparison of policing used in different frameworks with in different countries experiences in policing, structure and standards. The statements of problems in each article were not clearly visible, and it required several readings to establish why the researchers needed to be study.

Still the questions raised in the articles are further questions and unanswered. The first article has no clear conclusion. The second article is also concentrated on the NIM rather than analyzing the other models as stated in the object. And also all the articles have no clear methods and findings and recommendations.

Conclusion

This reviewed paper is tried to assess the concept that organized crime has grown beyond the competence of the traditional criminal justice investigative agencies. Since organized crime is a global problem, a collaborative and coordinated effort is required to against organized crime.

The policing approach was standardized through the implementation of the National Intelligence Model (NIM). Policing teams tasked with attempting crime at an inter-force, national and international level had always made use of intelligence information. The NIM process sets out a system for the collection and evaluation of information.

Awareness of occupational linkage is currently reinforced by the broadly shared opinion that police forces must co-operate to respond effectively to crime and insecurity. Various forms of bilateral, multilateral and international cooperation are encouraged by intergovernmental organizations (IGOs). The operational requirements of multinational peacekeeping deployments play role as the conformation of UN police (UNPOL) missions emphasizes

The globalization thesis agenda on transnational policing is rising in a variety of different socio-geographical scopes which is described in relation to policing in the local, national, regional, international and global scopes. As a fact, contemporary policing requires collaboration across international boundaries has become accepted. Transnational networks have become wider, intensive and faster flowing global forces are having a greater local impact.

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Organization of Local, International and Transnational Organized Crime Policing and Research Issue. [online]. Available at: <https://edubirdie.com/examples/organization-of-local-international-and-transnational-organized-crime-policing-and-research-issue/> [Accessed 30 Nov. 2022].
Organization of Local, International and Transnational Organized Crime Policing and Research Issue [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Aug 12 [cited 2022 Nov 30]. Available from: https://edubirdie.com/examples/organization-of-local-international-and-transnational-organized-crime-policing-and-research-issue/
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