AbstractAlabama fourth grade reading comprehension and reading skills scores resulted in a drop in 2016 from 2017. The score was lower than the average mean score of 221 for public elementary school students in America reading. Research has shown that students whose parents who participate in their educational attainment have more academic achievement success than students who have minimal or no participation. The theoretical framework used in this research proposal is Epstein’s theory of parental involvement.
Reading is primary, it is important for finding employment and being successful. When children aren’t fluent in reading and understanding what they read he or she are stuck to what they can attain in the world. Moreover, reading creates an intellect inside the mind, it expands the talent of speaking fluently and vocabulary. Understanding words is a technique that soothes the mind, body, and soul. Most importantly reading is how the human race discovers new things in existence.
What’s more, approximately sixty-five percent of fourth-grade students in Alabama public education are not reading fluently(NAEP, 2019). First- hand data suggests that parents who give their children books provide them with a benefit over their classmates throughout Reading is basic in the United States; it is crucial for finding employment and being successful in life. When children aren’t fluent in reading and reading comprehension, it restricts them as to what they can gain or accomplish inside the world. Moreover, reading creates an intellect inside the mind, and it expands the talent of speaking fluently and vocabulary. Understanding words is a technique that relaxes the mind, body, and soul. Most importantly, reading is how the human race discovers new things in existence(Davis, 2016). What’s more, according to NAEP 2019, approximately sixty-five percent of fourth-grade students in Alabama public education are not reading on their grade level. First- hand data suggests that parents who give their children books provide them with a benefit over their classmates throughout and beyond the elementary years. According to literary research, parents’ contributions to their child’s reading activities at home will have a positive correlation towards their academic achievement and skills. It will also improve their child’s attitudes towards it. and beyond the elementary years. According to inquiries, a parent’s contribution to their child’s reading activities inside the home will have a positive correlation on their academic achievement in reading vocabulary and reading comprehension. It will also improve their child’s attitudes towards it.
NAEP is a reliable reading test conducted every two years to students in the fourth grade. The National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP)measures reading comprehension by asking students to read fourth-grade reading passages and to answer questions based on reading materials presented. Moreover, the NAEP evaluation in 2019 included 150,600 fourth graders, inside the United States of America (National Assessment of Educational Progress, 2019; National Center for Education Statistics, 2019). Surprisingly, thirty-five percent of fourth-grade students performed in proximity to or beyond the NAEP reading skills level in 2019. This ratio was only a point lower compared to 2017 but was 7 points above than in the 1992 timeframe. (National Assessment of Educational Progress, 2019; National Center for Education Statistics, 2019). Consequently, sixty percent of fourth-grade students performed at or beyond the NAEP reading skills level in 2019. This calculation was merely a point lower contrasted to the test results in 2017 and just four points higher than the fourth-grade delivery skills in 1992.
The mean of literacy students in 2019 for the state of Alabama was 212. The totalities were smaller than the customary 219 ratings on American students. Habitually, fourth-grade gains dropped comprising (212) subordinate to their mean rating (216) 2017 year ( The Nation’s Report Card, 2017). Twenty-eight percent accomplished close to or beyond NAEP’s required literacy skill close for 2019 in which computation was not overtly different than inside for the 2017 year which was thirty-one percent (The Nation’s Report Card, 2017; National Assessment of Education Progress, 2019). Finally, fifty-eight percent implemented on and/ or greater than the NAEP test level for the 2019 year. This proportion was poorer than in the two years prior by sixty -three percent functioning next to and exceeding NAEP fundamental reading skills that were not much distinctive from numbers in the 1998 academic year, which was fifty-six 56 %.
Researchers investigate parental involvement and student’s literary achievement. For instance, Waterford (2018) suggests that the best predictor for a student’s scholarly achievement is the home atmosphere and the extent to which parents and families promote learning at home and get involved in their children’s homework assignments. When parents get fully emerged in their child’s education, their child will become more responsible for their education, and their sense of efficacy improved (Waterford, 2018). Scholars with involved parents regardless of ethnicity, monetary value, history, or social standing are more likely to receive higher reading test scores, earn higher grades, show new, improved behavior, and graduate from school.
Observed results have shown a positive correlation between parents who participate in their children’s education and academic achievements, such as high self-esteem, self-efficacy, excellent grades, and attendance(Terraga et al., 2017). Even more than that, family connections networked with positive school connections on the part of children as well as a positive enlightening atmosphere (i.e., environment).
Consequently, parent-school teamwork allows the perception of roles and relationships and influence on their child’s cognition. From this idea, families, and educators are the main players in the building of their roles and involvement, producing new and wide-ranging movements to convey to each other according to the educational setting. The overall results within the family-school component exhibit a positive influence of teamwork, aiding, and abetting to overall academic achievement and success. There is also strong support from international research showing a positive impact between parental participation across race, ethnicity, and educational attainment.
While there are lots of definitions for parental involvement and academic achievement, it is an agreement about the positive effect of parental participation and children’s academic achievement overseas. However, most of the data on parental involvement comes deeply embedded cross-sectional and correlational experimental designs, on the other hand, Latin America facts and documents are scarce or deficient. According to the review of the literature on parental involvement in education in Latin America, only one study exists, and it dates to research on the Mexican population in 1998.
Unfortunately, no main theoretical construct links to parental participation and academic achievement in reading. However, there are tons of first-hand data connecting Epstein’s theoretic theory to parental engagement and academic achievement. Epstein’s theory on parental contribution shows strong impacts that parents, family, school, and the community have on student’s overall academic achievement. The researcher broke down the operational and collaborating parts of the theory as interrelating domains. The components or domains relate to the grade level, age, level of cognition (i.e., the thinking), and social development of the students to reach academic success (Epstein, 2011). Also, each domain or component has outside issues that mold the learning atmosphere such as, attitudes, family traditions, practices, the school, and community(Epstein, 2011).
The participants with minimal skills in reading and comprehension were randomly selected according to their grades in reading comprehension for the research proposal. The researcher suggests that the more parents engage in their children’s homework, the better their children’s grades will become in reading assessment scores(Epstein, 2011). Epstein’s types of parental participation provide an all-inclusive program for academic achievement in school using parents, family, and community teamwork. Epstein’s six types of parental engagement include parenting, communicating, volunteering, learning at home, decision making, and collaborating with the people inside the community(Epstein, 2011)
Parenting is helping families set up a supportive home environment for children as students. Plans for home conditions that serve to enhance learning and academic achievement, parental education activities, reading exercises, and family support programs are some practice examples(Epstein, 2011). Results for students include excellent grades, improved attendance, increased test scores, awareness of the importance of education, and mutual respect for their parents(Epstein, 2011).
The concept is to place the parent(s) in their child’s or children’s reading activities at home and homework to improve their test scores in reading and reading comprehension. This research will use qualitative case study data collected gathered and analyzed(Martorana, 2015). The purpose of this research is to measure the impact of parental involvement in fourth- grade students reading academic achievement, reading comprehension, and test scores (Martarona, 2015).
Finally, this research includes ten weeks of testing of parents and fourth-grade Title I public elementary school students in rural Livingston, Alabama. Parents are instructed to attend a seminar after school and taught reading techniques to use at home with the at-home sessions. The workshop will take place after school for twenty minutes(Matarona, 2015). Throughout the seminar held, the researcher will demonstrate a reading technique to the seven parents selected for the research.
Livingston Junior High School is a Pre-K through 8-grade Title I, public education school with an enrollment population of 585 students. The student population is 74% African American. Most of the students live in apartment complexes low incoming housing. The percentage of free and reduced lunches is about ninety-five percent. Each grade level consists of two classes except for grades Pre-Kindergarten, Kindergarten, First, Fourth, and Seventh. The students who receive special education services make up about 10% of the population.
The sampling technique is a random sample of parents fourth-grade students who have minimal reading skills, comprehension skills, and below fourth-grade level reading test scores. This research will be a case study conducted over ten weeks with observations, notes, survey questionnaires, and interviews. Survey questionnaires completed by the parents and the child in which the researcher will utilize to analyze data pertaining to parental participation and their children’s scholastic achievement in reading, and reading comprehension.
Role of Participants and Impact on Participants
Parental involvement in their child’s homework will help teachers and administrators in the public-school system implement techniques that will improve student’s speaking skills, increase annual reading assessment scores, and children’s overall academic achievement.
Plan for Protection of Human Subjects
Ethics will be considered when completing research. The researcher will ensure that all participants are protected from harm. Participants will be informed of their rights, and informed consent will be received from parents or guardians of the participants. Participant’s information will be kept confidential. The parents and researcher will sign a confidentiality agreement. Participant’s names will not appear in any form. Once data is collected, access will be limited to the researcher. All participants will be notified of their right to withdraw.
The independent variable in this research is the number and types of books children read in the home with their parents. The dependent variable for the research is the student’s grades or the change in performance on the reading tests.
To begin, the researcher will write a letter introducing the research study. A consent form is sent home along with a survey asking them about their habits in supporting their child’s education at home(Martorona, 2015). The researcher asked parents to come in after school for a brief workshop. Students’reading habits and personal book data were is measured with a questionnaire(Martorona, 2015). Secondly, children will complete a fourth-grade level reading comprehension test similar to NAEP before the experiment, which will consist of reading excerpts and reading comprehension questions, mostly multiple-choice questions, and short answers(Martorona, 2015).
What’s more, students will receive two different books weekly to read at home with their parents. They answer questions about the books they read at home. The books assigned will be on the fourth-grade reading level(Martorona, 2015). Students and parents were told to read the first book for two nights and the second book for the next two nights. The researcher told students to read to their parents and told the parents to read to their child(Martorona, 2015). Finally, parents were taught in the seminar how to ask their child reading comprehension questions found in the back of the book and to assist him or her by answering the examination comprehension questions(Martorona, 2015).
Parental Participation- Parental involvement or participation refers to the amount of engagement or interaction a parent has when it comes to education or schooling in their child’s life, in this research, it’s reading (Collins, 2020).
The purpose of this research is to examine parental involvement and academic achievement in reading, test scores, and reading comprehension. The researcher is measuring changes before and after children and parents read together at home with parents for four nights and ten weeks(Martorana, 2015). The researcher used surveys to measure how the student and parent participants felt about reading, homework, and intervention. Synopsis of data for the response will follow (Martorana, 2015). To evaluate the reading intervention, the researcher will present students, and parents with surveys to determine if the reading scores differ after the at-home reading experience and for descriptive intervention statistics for pre-tests and post-tests intervention(Martorana, 2015). Reading test scores will be computed. Surveys will be used to collect parents’ responses, for instance, tendencies related to reading, helping their child with homework and children’s reading samples (Martorana,2015).
Surveys are reliable instruments collecting attitudes and opinions on reading interventions and techniques during pre and post-tests.
Parents are responsible for reading to their children and answering pre-testing and post-testing surveys to help the researcher measure how parental involvement at home can impact children’s reading and literary achievement. Fourth- graders are responsible for reading to their parents and answering survey questions about reading preferences, reading, and answering literary examination questions on tests for collecting data.
The elementary school librarian and fourth-grade teachers will donate books; reading techniques were taught in the seminar-workshop by a fourth-grade teacher from within an elementary school. The plan is to use available resources in the school. The school’s librarian and second-grade teachers have agreed to provide books need for literary sessions at home. Second-grade teachers will provide literary comprehension tests to conduct for the research.
Parents’ work schedules might interfere with them reading to their children, helping them with the reading assignments, questions, and completing the surveys required to complete for research data analysis.