Short on time?

Get essay writing help

Physiological Homeostasis Of An Active Person Versus A Non Active Person

Words: 2459
Pages: 5
This essay sample was donated by a student to help the academic community. Papers provided by EduBirdie writers usually outdo students' samples.


Homeostasis is thrown out of its set point as a response to a stressor, like an exercise. The primary objective of this study is to determine whether an active person will have a more effective physiological response to the stress of exercise than the less active person. The proposed hypothesis is that the physical activity level of a person affects the rate of response and recovery of maintaining physiological homeostasis. The pulse rate and external temperature were the two parameters measured for the rest, response and recovery phases of homeostasis. Two female test subjects with two different physical activeness performed an exercise for 2 minutes and 30 seconds. The two trials taken were averaged and extrapolated into a line graph to compare and contrast the parameters of two test subjects. I concluded that the results are consistent with the hypothesis presented. The less active person has a higher response rate of pulse and external temperature to the maintain homeostasis than the active person. Therefore, the physical activeness of a person is found to have an effect to maintain homeostasis.


The maintenance of a steady internal environment regardless of a constantly changing external condition is called homeostasis. It enables all body frameworks to perform within an acceptable range. Human bodies maintain a stable internal environment of ~37 °C, ~0.1% blood glucose, blood pH of ~7.35. It is maintained by feedback loops, mainly negative feedback loops which are processes where a mechanism is activated to bring the body back to its normal state. (Modell et al, 2015). If the system cannot restore its balance, it can lead to death.

The homeostasis of body temperature within a range by which a life form functions ideally is called thermoregulation. The core temperature of the body is usually different from the external temperature. The internal temperature must be kept up at a specific temperature to give an optimal environment for internal organs to perform adequately and efficiently. However, if the core temperature is not maintained, it could permanently damage internal organs. The circulatory system works together with thermoregulation. Circulatory system helps by directing blood towards the surface of the skin to secrete heat. The capillaries in the skin dilate to increase the amount of blood reaching the skin to give off the excess heat. This process lowers the core temperature whilst increasing the external temperature. This action increases blood flow thus the pulse or heartbeat increases.

The chemical reactions made during a rigorous exercise make the heart and working muscles very active, thus ending up releasing heat. Working muscles are being supplied with oxygen. Oxygen is used for aerobic respiration which breaks down glucose to form Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), one of the major endogenous sources of energy of the body (“Energy for Exercise” 2007). ATP Hydrolysis is the breakdown of ATP which releases the energy needed for an activity, and also gives off heat. ATP production and hydrolysis happen simultaneously. The distribution of oxygen to the muscles to produce ATP and the distribution of the energy released from ATP hydrolysis is performed by the pumping of the heart. During exercise, the heart works extra hard to carry out this task, thus increasing the pulse, beats per minute, of the heart. The release of heat during ATP breakdown increases the core temperature of the body. In order to maintain the body’s normal internal temperature, the increase in blood flow also directs the heat produced to the surface of the skin, therefore increasing the external temperature.

In this study, we investigated the effects of vigorous exercise on the physiological homeostasis. Specifically, we tested the proposed hypothesis that the activity level of a person affects their ability to maintain homeostasis. It is argued that the heart of an active person is more adapted to more physical work and does not need to pump as hard to attain homeostasis, thus should have less change in heart rate and external temperature when in rest phase and when in the response phase. The less active person, on the other hand, will experience a higher change in heart rate and external temperature to maintain stability because she or he is less adapted to rigorous work, therefore, the person’s heart needs to work twice as much to attain homeostasis. This investigation is performed in a laboratory room at the DNA building at Trent University. Two parameters were measured for this experiment; the pulse, heartbeats per minute, using a sphygmomanometer and the external temperature, by degree Celsius, using an infrared thermometer, of the two volunteers who performed two minutes and thirty seconds of skipping ropes. Average data for two trials were taken and extrapolated into a line graph in the Microsoft Excel.


The measurement of the two parameters used in this lab investigation; heartbeat and external temperature, is performed in a laboratory room in DNA building in Peterborough, Ontario Monday afternoon last January 14, 2018. The laboratory room has a controlled temperature of 22°C

In this study, we observed the three phases of homeostasis: rest, response, recovery. Our group chose to examine the circulatory system and the thermoregulatory system. From these systems, we measured heartbeat in beats per minute (beats/min), using a sphygmomanometer and external temperature in Celsius (°C) using an infrared thermometer.

Save your time!
We can take care of your essay
  • Proper editing and formatting
  • Free revision, title page, and bibliography
  • Flexible prices and money-back guarantee
Place Order

Two female subjects; age ranging from 18-19 years old, weight around 110-130 pounds, height 1.50m-165m and both non-smokers, participated in the study. The variable we chose to examine in regards is the physical activity level of the experimental subjects. The first test subject is somewhat active due to work, while the second test subject is rarely active. Both test subjects do not actively engage in competitive athletics. The first measurement taken is the rest phase of homeostasis and also the controlled measurement of the study in which the two test subjects were rested for 5 minutes that includes being seated, quiet and relaxed. After the 5 minutes mark, the heartbeat is measured using a sphygmomanometer that was cuffed around the upper arm of the test subject, the external temperature was also taken using an infrared temperature that was focused on the palm of the test subjects to get the reading. The test subjects then performed jump rope using plastic skipping ropes that elicited a physiological response of 14-15 based on the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) for 2 minutes and 30 seconds rigorously and consistently. Immediately after the exercise, the response phase is taken where the two chosen parameters were measured at the same time with the subjects seated, calm and quiet. Lastly, the recovery phase is taken in which a series of measurements were observed in 3 minutes interval for 30 minutes while the test subjects were seated, quiet, calm and unbothered. (“Foundations of cellular and molecular biology” 2019). The two testees were asked to make minimal movements and do not monitor themselves in order to not get inaccurate measurements. The data collection was done for two trials and were averaged. The averaged data was then extrapolated into a line graph in Microsoft Excel.


In Figure 1, the pulse rate of the active test subject is lower in the rest phase and response rate with 92 beats/minutes and132 beats/min respectively, in comparison to the less active test subject who has the higher pulse rate in rest phase, 100 beats/min and 150 beats/min in response phase. The pulse rate of the active person went back to its optimal range faster than the less active person as seen in the recovery phase. In Figure 2, the external temperature of the active participant is higher at the rest phase with 27°C, while the less active person has 23°C. The external temperature at the response phase of the active person is 23.9°C, while the less active person went up to 26.7°C.


Physical activeness of a person affects the response and recovery rate to maintain physiological homeostasis. In this study, we found that the rate of response of the less active person is significantly higher than the active person in terms of the pulse rate. The rate of recovery in terms of external temperature is also higher for the less active person in comparison to the active one. With these findings, we, therefore, accept the proposed hypothesis that the physical activity level of a person affects their ability to attain homeostasis in response to the stress of exercise.

In this investigation, we saw the dramatic response of the body to the stress of exercise performed which is the rapid increase of energy demands from the working muscles. During the exercise, the working muscles needed extra oxygen that is used for the aerobic respiration of glucose to produce Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). ATP is a very unstable molecule that one of the three-phosphate group can be easily removed that produces Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) and releases energy and a by-product of heat, this process is called ATP hydrolysis. This formation of ATP and breaking down to ADP happens simultaneously in our body and the rate of demand increases as we work the body or muscles more, hence the need for the extra oxygen. These whole proceedings of supplying the working muscles the extra ATP is facilitated by the circulatory system through the pumping of the blood-carrying-oxygen by the heart. The heart rate, hence the pulse, increases for it to meet the demands of the working body. This extra ATP being produced breaks down to ADP and gives off a by-product heat. These excess heat in the body increases the core temperature which throws off the body from its acceptable range of temperature. A negative feedback system will activate in response to the disorder within the body, which in this case is thermoregulation. The thermoreceptors in the brain will detect the rise of the internal temperature which will send the message to the hypothalamus that will then signal the capillaries near the skin surface to dilate. The dilation of the capillaries will increase blood flow carrying the warm blood towards the surface of the skin to give off the excess heat inside the body. While the excess heat is given of the body, the internal temperature will start to go back to its optimal range while increasing the external temperature. Thermoregulation and the circulatory system work together to maintain the core temperature of the body.

In our study, we found that the active person has a lower rate of response than the less active test subject. This tells us that the active person’s response to the stress of the exercise is not as dramatic compared to the less active person. This is due to the strong heart and more capillaries in the working muscles of the active test subject. Strengthen heart means that there is more blood flow per beat, so the heart does not have to pump as much to supply the demands of the body. The increase in capillaries, on the other hand, increases the surface area in the working muscles that the blood flows through.

A study conducted by Chudecka and Lubkowska (2012) about the use of thermal imaging to evaluate body temperature of training athletes, had found in their investigation the better mechanism to eliminate heat formed during training which supports our hypothesis. They found that a trained individual is better at maintaining core temperature by not raising the external temperature too much. The active person’s body has undergone adaptive changes due to physical exercises that the core temperature rise is lower and the ability to dissipate heat off of the body, through intense perspiration, improves. The cooling off process begins at an early stage of exercise and starts at a low temperature. Simultaneously, external temperature decreases. (Chudecka and Lubkowska 2012).

Based on our findings, the ability to maintain homeostasis is affected by the activity level of a person but there are limitations and a contributing factor that explains the trend seen in Figure 2 of the more active person. The outfit worn of the test subjects can affect the parameters measured. The person who wore heavier clothing has poor ventilation for dissipating heat and will overheat first, hence the external temperature and pulse rate of this person is considerably higher regardless of the variable being considered. Inversely, if the person was wearing an item of lighter clothing, she will have better ventilation to radiate off heat and has a lower pulse and external temperature rate. Second, the pre-existing conditions, except asthma, that the test subjects might have had were not taken into consideration. These conditions can cause why the person’s response is significantly different from the other regardless of the variable being tested. Lastly, the two body systems investigated; circulatory and thermoregulation, are not enough parameters to provide concrete support for our hypothesis. Other factors can come into play if the other systems that weren’t measured are at advantage or disadvantage, again, because of the pre-existing conditions the test subject might have had.

Our study overall had provided enough evidence to support our hypothesis. The higher rise in pulse and external temperature rate of the less active person than the active person, suggests that the physical activeness of the two female test subject is a factor that affects their response and recovery rate to the stress of exercise. We saw a significant increase in the pulse rate of the less active person in the response phase and how quickly it dropped in the recovery phase. This trend is interesting to look at because some people are not able to lower their pulse rate at early recovery after a rigorous exercise. A study conducted about the heart-rate recovery immediately after an exercise is a prediction of mortality. Cole (1999), who performed the study, concluded that the failure of the heart to fall on normal ranges during early recovery after exercise suggests an increase in the overall mortality. All 2428 test subjects of this study were men and have no history of heart failures or other cardiovascular and circulatory diseases (Cole et al, 1999). This study can be ventured to investigate the possible illnesses that a person might develop in his or her older years by being more extensive to the variables and parameters being measured.


  1. Chudecka, M. Lubkowska, A. 2012. The use of thermal imaging to evaluate body temperature changes of athletes during training and a study on the impact of physiological and morphological factors on skin temperature. Sciendo. 13: 33-39
  2. Cole, C., Blackstone E., Pashkow, F., Snader, C., Lauer, M. 1999. Heart-rate recovery immediately after exercise as a predictor of mortality. The New England journal of medicine. 341: 1351-1357
  3. Model, H. Cliff, W. Michael, J. McFarland, J. Wenderoth, M. Wright, A. 2015. A physiologist’s view of homeostasis. Advances in Physiology Education. 39(4): 259–266
  4. Pieper, S. 2018. Exercise Physiology. Trent University, Peterborough ON. Science Learning Hub. Pokapū Akoranga Pūtaiao, University of Waikato. 2007-06-21. Energy for Exercise. Accessed: 2019-21-01
  5. Healthline, Healthline Media. 2016-09-22. Thermoregulation | Definition and Patient Education. Accessed: 2019-27-01

Make sure you submit a unique essay

Our writers will provide you with an essay sample written from scratch: any topic, any deadline, any instructions.

Cite this Page

Physiological Homeostasis Of An Active Person Versus A Non Active Person. (2021, September 21). Edubirdie. Retrieved September 24, 2023, from
“Physiological Homeostasis Of An Active Person Versus A Non Active Person.” Edubirdie, 21 Sept. 2021,
Physiological Homeostasis Of An Active Person Versus A Non Active Person. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 24 Sept. 2023].
Physiological Homeostasis Of An Active Person Versus A Non Active Person [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2021 Sept 21 [cited 2023 Sept 24]. Available from:
Join 100k satisfied students
  • Get original paper written according to your instructions
  • Save time for what matters most
hire writer

Fair Use Policy

EduBirdie considers academic integrity to be the essential part of the learning process and does not support any violation of the academic standards. Should you have any questions regarding our Fair Use Policy or become aware of any violations, please do not hesitate to contact us via

Check it out!
search Stuck on your essay?

We are here 24/7 to write your paper in as fast as 3 hours.